An energy-hungry world requires innovative approaches to meet the increasing needs of homes, hospitals, schools and businesses, military installations and industries—the kinds of innovative approaches that NETL pursues daily under the research banner of one of its major core competencies known as energy conversion engineering. NETL is America’s only national laboratory dedicated to fossil fuel research and the work it tackles seeks to discover, refine, and disseminate new technologies that embrace the abundance of fossil fuels while carefully considering and addressing challenging requirements and opportunities Energy conversion is the process of changing one form of energy to another. For example, energy conversion is used to change the chemical energy in coal to thermal and mechanical energy that can turn a power plant’s turbine. Many of NETL’s energy conversion engineering efforts focus on increasing power cycle efficiency, enabling more power generation for less fuel and fewer emissions. The Laboratory’s Associate Director of Energy Conversion, Dave Berry, explained that the research can be sorted into short-term and long-term efforts.