NETL’s work with solid oxide fuel cells is enhancing the nation’s electric grid by generating combustion-free power with minimal environmental impact. The Lab is now extending its research vision to develop reversible solid oxide cells, which can alternately either generate power or produce clean-burning fuel. Solid oxide cells operate in two modes: fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode. Solid oxide cells operating in fuel cell mode are known as solid oxide fuel cells, or SOFCs, while solid oxide cells operating in electrolysis mode are known as solid oxide electrolysis cells, or SOECs. SOFCs convert chemical energy from a fuel directly into electrical energy. A fuel source such as hydrogen, natural gas or syngas is fed into the cell, and electricity, water and/or CO2 are produced as byproducts. Since SOFCs produce electricity through an electrochemical reaction and not through a combustion process, they are much more environmentally friendly than conventional electric power generation methods due to higher efficiencies, reduced water usage and reduced CO2 emissions.