Project No: FE0004588
Performer: University of North Dakota


Contacts

Richard A. Dennis
Technology Manager, Turbines
National Energy Technology Laboratory
3610 Collins Ferry Road
P.O. Box 880
Morgantown, WV 26507-0880
304-285-4515
richard.dennis@netl.doe.gov

Steven Richardson
Project Manager
National Energy Technology Laboratory
3610 Collins Ferry Road
P.O. Box 880
Morgantown, WV 26507-0880
304-285-4185
steven.richardson@netl.doe.gov

Forrest E. Ames
Principal Investigator
University of North Dakota
School of Engineering and Mines
243 Centennial Drive, Stop 8359
Grand Forks, ND 58202
701-777-2095
forrest.ames@engr.und.edu

Duration
Award Date:  10/01/2010
Project Date:  09/30/2014

Cost
DOE Share: $499,999.00
Performer Share: $125,000.00
Total Award Value: $624,999.00

Performer website: University of North Dakota - http://www.und.edu

Advanced Energy Systems - Hydrogen Turbines

Environmental Considerations and Cooling Strategies for Vane Leading Edges in a Syngas Environment

Project Description

This collaborative effort studying technologies important to the reliability of high hydrogen fueled gas turbines has been structured utilizing three phases.

Phase I: Leading Edge Model Development and Experimental Validation
The initial task for The Ohio State University's (OSU's) turbine reacting flow rig (TuRFR) facility will be to determine if the deposition mechanism for faired cylinders is similar to deposition for turbine vanes. If this approach is feasible, then the relative impact of leading edge diameter on deposition can be investigated using varying diameter cylinders instead of vanes. The deposition measurements will then be made and sent to the University of North Dakota (UND) for surface modeling. During Phase I, UND will study the response of turbulence approaching large cylindrical stagnation regions, the associated heat transfer augmentation, and boundary layer development on the cylinder's surface. Additionally, UND will begin the development of candidate internal cooling geometries for cooling a region of a turbine vane’s leading edge.

Phase II: Experimental Deposition and Roughness Study
OSU will utilize the TuRFR facility, modified to generate higher levels of turbulence, to study the influence of turbulence on deposition rates in turbines. These results will be used to improve predictive modeling and made available to UND for heat transfer measurements. UND will use surfaces generated by OSU as part of their leading edge heat transfer and boundary layer studies. UND will also develop and test candidate internal cooling schemes for large regions on a turbine vane's leading edge.

Phase III: Mitigation of Deposition Using Downstream Full Coverage Film Cooling
OSU will use faired (rounded to reduce drag) cylinders to explore various film cooling designs to assess their effectiveness at reducing deposition. Actual turbine vane geometry will be used to explore the influence of select film cooling patterns on deposition. UND will investigate the combined influence of turbulence and realistic roughness on film cooling effectiveness and surface heat transfer. As a basis of comparison, they will initially look at the influence of turbulence on film cooling effective-ness and heat transfer for selected full coverage geometries.

Deposit measurements on nozzle guide vane for slot film cooling (left); no film cooling (right).

Deposit measurements on nozzle guide vane for slot film cooling (left); no film cooling (right).


Program Background and Project Benefits

Turbines convert heat energy to mechanical energy by expanding a hot, compressed working fluid through a series of airfoils. Combustion turbines compress air, mix and combust it with a fuel (natural gas, coal-derived synthesis gas [syngas], or hydrogen), and then expand the combustion gases through the airfoils. Expansion turbines expand a working fluid like steam or supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) that has been heated in a heat exchanger by an external heat source. These two types of turbines are used in conjunction to form a combined cycle— with heat from the combustion gases used as the heat source for the working fluid— improving efficiency and reducing emissions. If oxygen is used for combustion in place of air, then the combustion gases consist mostly of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water, and the CO2 can be easily separated and sent to storage or used for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). Alternatively, the CO2/steam combustion gases can be expanded directly in an oxy-fuel turbine. Turbines are the backbone of power generation in the US, and the diverse power cycles containing turbines provide a variety of electricity generation options for fossil derived fuels. The efficiency of combustion turbines has steadily increased as advanced technologies have provided manufacturers with the ability to produce highly advanced turbines that operate at very high temperatures. The Advanced Turbines program is developing technologies in four key areas that will accelerate turbine performance, efficiency, and cost effectiveness beyond current state-of-the-art and provide tangible benefits to the public in the form of lower cost of electricity (COE), reduced emissions of criteria pollutants, and carbon capture options. The Key Technology areas for the Advanced Hydrogen Turbines Program are: (1) Hydrogen Turbines, (2) Supercritical CO2 Power Cycles, (3) Oxy-Fueled Turbines, and (4) Advanced Steam Turbines.

Hydrogen turbine technology research is being conducted with the goal of producing reliable, affordable, and environmentally friendly electric power in response to the Nation's increasing energy challenges. NETL is leading the research, development, and demonstration of technologies to achieve power production from high hydrogen content (HHC) fuels derived from coal that is clean, efficient, and cost-effective; minimize carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions; and help maintain the Nation's leadership in the export of gas turbine equipment. These goals are being met by developing the most advanced technology in the areas of materials, cooling, heat transfer, manufacturing, aerodynamics, and machine design. Success in these areas will allow machines to be designed that have higher efficiencies and power output with lower emissions and lower cost.

The University of North Dakota (UND), in collaboration with The Ohio State University (OSU), will study technologies important to the reliability of high hydrogen fueled gas turbines. UND will utilize data from OSU's turbine reacting flow rig (TuRFR) facility to study turbulence approaching turbine vanes, the influences of varying levels of turbulence on deposition rates, and the combined influence of turbulence and realistic roughness on film cooling effectiveness and surface heat transfer. UND will also develop and test candidate internal cooling schemes for large regions on a turbine vane’s leading edge. Aerodynamics and heat transfer research conducted under the Advanced Turbine Program seeks to improve the understanding of heat transfer in turbine components, develop improved cooling methods and designs, and improve tools used to model heat transfer or particulate behavior under turbine operating conditions. These improvements will lead to improved component designs that will improve efficiency and reduce maintenance costs leading to reduced operating costs, lower costs of electricity, and reduced emissions.


Accomplishments

UND accomplishments:

OSU accomplishments: