Energy Analysis

Production of Zero Sulfur Diesel Fuel from Domestic Coal: Configurational Options to Reduce Environmental Impact

Date: 05/2012

            Contact: Thomas J. Tarka

The conversion of domestic resources such as coal and biomass into diesel fuel is a near-term technology pathway to address the energy security, economic sustainability, and climate change concerns which currently face our nation. This study evaluates the economic viability and environmental impact of producing diesel fuel via Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. Two facility design approaches – focused on fuels production and the co-production of fuels and electricity, respectively – were evaluated for the conversion of domestic resources such as coal or a mixture of coal and biomass.


QGESS: Process Modeling Design Parameters

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

The purpose of this section of the Quality Guidelines is to document the assumptions most commonly used in systems analysis studies and the basis for those assumptions. The large number of assumptions required for a thorough systems analysis make it impractical to document the entire set in each report. This document will serve as a comprehensive reference for these assumptions as well as their justification.


Research and Development Goals for CO2 Capture Technology

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

This document outlines the carbon capture goals set forth by DOE/NETL and provides a detailed breakdown and justification of their derivation.


QGESS: CO2 Impurity Design Parameters

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

This section of the Quality Guidelines provides recommended impurity limits for CO2 stream components for use in conceptual studies of CO2 carbon capture, utilization, and storage systems. These limits were developed from information consolidated from numerous studies and are presented by component. Impurity levels are provided for limitations of carbon steel pipelines, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), saline reservoir sequestration, and cosequestration of CO2 and H2S in saline reservoirs.


QGESS: Specifications for Selected Feedstocks

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

This document provides recommended specifications for various feedstocks that are commonly found in NETL-sponsored energy system studies. Adhering to these specifications should enhance the consistency of such studies. NETL recommends these guidelines be followed in the absence of any compelling market, project, or site-specific requirements in order to facilitate comparison of studies evaluating coal-based technologies.


QGESS: Technology Learning Curve (FOAK to NOAK)

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

This report summarizes costing methodologies employed by NETL for estimating future costs of mature commercial Nth-of-a-kind (NOAK) power plants from initial first-of-a-kind (FOAK) estimates for use in costing models and reports. It defines the specific steps and factors which can be used in such estimation calculations. The methodology within is based on knowledge of major plant component costs for various technologies.


Life Cycle Analysis: Ethanol from Biomass - Presentation

Date: 09/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

Life Cycle Analysis of an Ethanol Plant utilizing Biomass. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs.


Life Cycle Analysis: Ethanol from Biomass - Appendix

Date: 09/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

Appendix of Life Cycle Analysis of an Ethanol Plant utilizing Biomass. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs.


Life Cycle Analysis: Ethanol from Biomass

Date: 08/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

Life Cycle Analysis of an Ethanol Plant utilizing Biomass. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 2: Coal to Synthetic Natural Gas and Ammonia

Date: 07/2011

            Contact: James Black

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants, Volume 2: Coal to Synthetic Natural Gas and Ammonia establishes performance and cost data for coal fueled plants producing synthetic natural gas and ammonia. The plants are based on a dry-feed entrained-flow gasifier and include cases using bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite coals. All configurations were studied with and without carbon sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions for plants starting operation in 2012. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.


QGESS: Cost Estimation Methodology for NETL Assessments of Power Plant Performance

Date: 04/2011

            Contact: Wm. Morgan Summers

This paper summarizes the cost estimation methodology employed by NETL in its assessment of power plant performance. A clear understanding of the methodology used is essential for allowing different power plant technologies to be compared on a similar basis. Though these guidelines are tailored for power plants, they can also be applied to a variety of different energy conversion plants (e.g., coal to liquids, syngas generation, hydrogen). This document is part of the Office of Program Planning and Analysis’s Quality Guidelines for Energy Systems Studies (QGESS) series.


Current and Future Technologies for Gasification-Based Power Generation, Volume 2: Carbon Capture, Revision 1

Date: 10/2010

            Contact: Kristin J. Gerdes

The impact of a portfolio of advanced technologies in DOE's Clean Coal R&D Program were evaluated in gasification-based power plant configurations with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) resulting in power plants that are significantly more efficient and affordable than today's fossil energy technologies. In the IGCC process, the study estimates that a 7 percentage point efficiency improvement over conventional gasification technology is possible. With fuel cell technology, process efficiency improvements of 24 percentage points are potentially achievable. Furthermore, successful R&D for the advanced technologies evaluated results in capital costs and cost of electricity that is more than 30% below that of conventional IGCC technology with CCS.


Production of High Purity Hydrogen from Domestic Coal: Assessing the Techno-Economic Impact of Emerging Technologies

Date: 09/2010

            Contact: Kristen J. Gerdes

This report assesses the improvements in cost and performance of hydrogen production from domestic coal (with carbon capture) when employing emerging technologies funded by DOE. This analysis specifically evaluates replacing conventional gas cleanup and hydrogen separation with warm gas cleanup and a high temperature membrane.


Assessment of Hydrogen Production with CO2 Capture, Volume 1: Baseline State of the Art Plants

Date: 09/2010

            Contact: Larry Rath

This study establishes performance and cost data for state-of-the-art fossil energy hydrogen production plants with carbon dioxide capture and storage. Both natural gas and bituminous coal feedstocks are assessed. Future volumes will examine the cost and performance benefit when DOE-funded advanced technologies are incorporated into a coal-based hydrogen production plant with CO2 capture.


Interagency Workgroup on Life Cycle GHG Emissions of Alternative Aviation Fuels

Date: 02/2010

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This presentation covers efforts to examine life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of alternative aviation fuels, as led by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory with the support of a multi-disciplinary group of federal, industrial, academic institutions. The primary objective of the workgroup is to develop a set of standard guidance on how to evaluate the life cycle GHG footprint of various alternative jet fuel production pathways using a wide-range of feedstock sources. Application of the guidelines can be used by fuel suppliers, military, and commercial airlines to assess the environmental preferability of a specific fuel production pathway when compared to conventional jet fuel. Workgroup activity status and plans for testing on specific case studies are also discussed.


Integration of H2 Separation Membranes with CO2 Capture and Compression

Date: 11/2009

            Contact: Eric Grol

A core mission of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Carbon Sequestration Program is to foster the development of commercially-ready technologies for CO2 capture and sequestration. R&D supported by the U.S. DOE is investigating alternatives to absorption for capturing CO2 that may achieve program goals. Membrane gas separation has a number of advantages, in that they are usually compact, have no moving parts, have low maintenance, and are highly reliable. In this assessment, alternative flowsheets incorporating membranes that may out-perform current technologies for CO2 capture were investigated. An initial screening study identified several novel integrations of membranes for IGCC applications.


Balancing Climate Change, Energy Security, and Economic Sustainability: A Life Cycle Comparison of Diesel Fuel from Crude Oil and Domestic Coal and Biomass Resources

Date: 04/2009

            Contact: Chris Nichols

Brief 4-page summary of the near-term benefits of co-gasifying U.S. coal and biomass resources to produce FT diesel; a domestic transportation fuel. The paper summarizes the climate change, energy security, and economic benefits when compared to conventional diesel fuel production from domestic and imported crude oil.


An Evaluation of the Extraction, Transport and Refining of Imported Crude Oils and the Impact on Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Date: 03/2009

            Contact: Chris Nichols

NETL has analyzed the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel) derived from domestic crude oil and crude oil imported from specific countries. The analysis reveals that producing diesel from imported crude oil results in well-to-tank GHG emissions that are, on average, 59% higher than from domestic crude oil. Imported crude oils are on average heavier and contain higher levels of sulfur and the controls on venting and flaring during crude oil production are not as good as in domestic operations. This report provides detailed methodology and results for this analysis.


Consideration of Crude Oil Source in Evaluating Transportation Fuel GHG Emissions

Date: 03/2009

            Contact: Chris Nichols

NETL has analyzed the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel) for the baseline year 2005. Further analysis reveals that producing diesel from imported crude oil results in well-to-tank GHG emissions that are, on average, 59% higher than from domestic crude oil. Imported crude oils are on average heavier and contain higher levels of sulfur and the controls on venting and flaring during crude oil production are not as good as in domestic operations. This report provides a brief summary of methodology and results of these two analyses.


NETL's Capability to Compare Transportation Fuels: GHG Emissions and Energy Security Impacts

Date: 02/2009

            Contact: Chris Nichols

Describes the methodology behind the well-to-tank greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions estimate for U.S. petroleum diesel of 18.4 kg CO2E/MMBtu fuel delivered to the vehicle, lower heating value (LHV) basis. This is the average for the United States in 2005. Presents additional analysis that reveals that producing diesel from imported crude oil results in well-to-tank GHG emissions that are, on average, 59% higher than from domestic crude oil.


Affordable, Low-Carbon Diesel Fuel from Domestic Coal and Biomass

Date: 01/2009

            Contact: Thomas J. Tarka

This study evaluates the use of domestic resources to meet national objectives of energy security, economic sustainability, and the mitigation of global climate change. Specifically, feasibility of these objectives is reviewed relevant to the transportation sector's needs and the unconventional fuels by which this sector can operate. The findings of the report indictate that CTL fuel is compatible with our current fuel distribution infrastructure, can be used directly in existing diesel vehicles, and would be economically competitive with petroleum-derived diesel when the crude oil price (COP) is equal to or above $86 per barrel (bbl).


Recommended Project Finance Structures for the Economic Analysis of Fossil-Based Energy Projects

Date: 09/2008

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This analysis develops a set of market validated financial assumptions, including the required internal rate of return for the equity portion of the investment (IRROE), cost of debt, and the financing structure (debt/equity ratio) needed to conduct comparative economic analyses of commercial and advanced coal-based power and fuel systems. These inputs are necessary to perform technical and economic analyses of coal-to-power, coal-to-liquids (CTL), coal-to-synthetic natural gas (CTG), natural gas to liquids (GTL) and natural gas to power technologies.


Chemical-Looping Process in a Coal-to-Liquids Configuration

Date: 12/2007

            Contact: John G. Wimer

This report presents an assessment of the potential of chemical looping in the context of a Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) coal-to-liquids (CTL) plant. This analysis-of-concept report was intended to confirm that the thermo chemical operations were in heat balance at temperatures compatible with an operable system. The analysis also included simulations of an entire coal to F-T liquids process, including the proposed looping scheme. The specific method tested in this report is a chemical looping concept that uses iron oxide (Fe2O3) to react with the unreacted synthesis gas (H2 and CO) and light hydrocarbons in the effluent tail gas from an F-T reactor.


Chemical-Looping Process in a Coal-to-Liquids Configuration: Independent Assessment of the Potential of Chemical-Looping in the Context of a Fischer-Tropsch Plant

Date: 12/2007

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This study provides an independent technical assessment of the potential of chemical looping in the context of a Fischer-Tropsch coal-to-liquids (CTL) plant. Within this framework, the analysis compares the technical performance results of a CTL plant with chemical looping with a conventional coal-to-liquids (CTL) system. Specifically, a concept under development by The Ohio State University (OSU) was assessed to confirm that the thermochemical operations were in heat balance at temperatures compatible with an operable system.


Further Investigation of the Impact of Sulfur Oxides on Mercury Capture by Activated Carbon

Date: 11/2007

            Contact:

To gain a more complete understanding of the impact of sulfur oxides on mercury capture by activated carbon, continuous mercury concentration measurements were made downstream of a packed sorbent bed. The results indicate that high S6+ content limits both the 6-h capacity of activated carbon and the initial mercury removal efficiency. Findings suggest that there are multiple available sites for mercury interaction with the sorbent surface and that capture and oxidation occur at different surface sites.


Baseline Technical and Economic Assessment of a Commercial Scale Fischer-Tropsch Liquids Facility

Date: 04/2007

            Contact: John G. Wimer

This report examines the technical and economic feasibility of a commercial 50,000 barrel per day (bbl/day) coal-to-liquids (CTL) facility in the Illinois coal basin. The facility employs gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology to produce commercial-grade diesel and naphtha liquids from medium-sulfur bituminous coal. The scope of the study includes conceptual design development, process analysis, component descriptions, capital and operating cost estimates, and a comparative financial analysis.


Industrial Size Gasification for Syngas, Substitute Natural Gas and Power Production

Date: 04/2007

            Contact: John G. Wimer

A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the technical and economic viability of coal-derived syngas and substitute natural gas (SNG) refueling of U.S. industries. The study develops an energy demand profile and identifies fuel sources to meet these demands. The study then develops a conceptual design and cost estimates for the production of syngas from coal gasification, production of SNG, and combustion turbine combined cycle refueling with syngas and SNG.


Technical and Economic Assessment of Small-Scale Fischer-Tropsch Liquids Facilities

Date: 02/2007

            Contact: Erik Shuster

This report examines the technical and economic feasibility of a small-scale coal-to liquids (CTL) facility in southwestern West Virginia. The facility employs gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology to produce commercial-grade diesel and naphtha liquids from a high-sulfur bituminous coal. The scope of the study includes conceptual design development, process analysis, component descriptions, capital and operating cost estimates, and a comparative financial analysis.


Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study

Date: 07/2006

            Contact: John G. Wimer

This report summarizes the investigation of an IGCC system for a potential industrial setting on the Cook Inlet, in Nikiski, Alaska. Faced with an increase in natural gas price and a decrease in supply, local industry is investigating alternatives to natural gas as a feed stock for their process plants. This study evaluated a gasification plant that would supply syngas to meet the chemical needs of a local application and would also co-produce power to meet on-site demand, and possibly other byproducts for local use. The results of the study verified that conversion of a plant from natural gas to syngas is technically and economically feasible.


Economic Impacts of U.S. Liquid Fuel Mitigation Options

Date: 07/2006

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This study assesses the economic implications of simultaneous crashes in the supply and demand sides of the economy; emulating a rapid reduction of U.S. dependence on imported oil. The report identifies the infrastructure needed to conduct this undertaking, and considers four options to mitigate dependence on imported oil: Vehicle fuel efficiency (VFE), Coal liquefaction (coal-to-liquids or CTL), Oil shale, and Enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The results of this study summarize what can be accomplished under optimal circumstances.


Use of Hydrogen for the Light Duty Transportation Fleet: Technology and Economic Analysis

Date: 09/2005

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This report presents results of economic modeling and scenario analyses in which the nation meets environmental and energy security goals. The 2003 federal goals include: reducing petroleum consumption by 11 million barrels per day and carbon emissions by 500 million metric tons by 2040. The paper highlights plausible technological pathways and policies needed to achieve these goals, including a scenario analysis on hydrogen or alternative fuel-based transportation fleets.


Alternative Approaches to Reducing Petroleum Use and CO2 Emissions By Means of a Hydrogen Economy: Technology and Economic Modeling and Scenario Analysis

Date: 05/2005

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This presentation discusses the executive goals to reduce petroleum consumption and CO2 emissions by 2040. Current trends in fossil fuel consumption are presented in relation to the level of carbon dioxide emitted from each source. The presentation suggests alternative scenarios to achieve these goals, including alternative fuels and fuel efficiency improvements. AMIGA runs are used to demonstrate optimal outcomes under various scenarios.


Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization: Task 3 Final Report

Date: 05/2005

            Contact: Erik Shuster

This study had three main objectives. The first was to examine the application of the gasifier at an industrial application in upstate New York using a Southeastern Ohio coal. The second was to investigate the GTI gasifier in a stand-alone lignite-fueled IGCC power plant application, sited in North Dakota. The final goal was to train NETL personnel in the methods of process design and systems analysis. As a result of this study, several areas have been identified in which research and development will further advance gasification technology. Such areas include improved system availability, development of warm-gas clean up technologies, and improved subsystem designs.


Life Cycle Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Hydrogen Fuel Production in the USA from LNG and Coal

Date: 05/2005

            Contact: Eric Grol

This presentation reviews a study that estimates life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for producing hydrogen from natural gas and coal. GHG emissions from all process steps are considered and comparisons were made between applications with and without carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). The study also discusses methane emissions and provides scenario analysis of coal-mine methane mitigation options.


Coal-to-Power and Coal-to-Liquid Fuels Technologies Used in a Technoeconomic Study of the Hydrogen Economy

Date: 01/2005

            Contact: Peter Balash

The purpose of this presentation is to review the executive goals of 2005 to make progress on a hydrogen economy that will reduce our dependence on foreign oil. Using NEMS runs and extrapolation of future trends, the presentation discusses on-going trends in carbon emissions and fuel consumption by each economic sector. Additional runs are developed to demonstrate how these projections change should the executive goals be successfully implemented in the future.


Polygeneration of SNG, Hydrogen, Power, and Carbon Dioxide from Texas Lignite

Date: 12/2004

            Contact: John G. Wimer

The intent of this study is to investigate the feasibility of siting a lignite conversion plant in Texas at the mine mouth of the Wilcox lignite deposit. The concept is to coproduce at least three products: electric power, hydrogen or substitute natural gas (SNG), and carbon dioxide. The electric power would be sold to the grid, the hydrogen would be sent by pipeline to the Gulf Coast petroleum refineries, the SNG would be sold as a natural gas supplement, and the carbon dioxide would be pipelined to the West Texas oil fields for enhanced oil recovery.


The Impact of Future Diesel Fuel Specifications and Engine Emissions Standards on SOFC

Date: 06/2004

            Contact:

This study begins by characterizing the relevant diesel specifications and related regulations with respect to their timing and effect on diesel fuel and its uses. Using this obtained information, the study evaluates and quantifies possible effects on the SECA program technology targets, timing, and likelihood of success. The report concludes with an evaluation of the possible effects on the market size and benefits of the SECA program, considering the impact on both diesel-fueled SOFC technology and CIE technology.