Energy Analysis

Options for Improving the Efficiency of Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants

Date: 04/2014

            Contact: Eric Grol

This analysis evaluates options for improving the efficiency of existing subcritical pulverized coal electric generating units.  The cost impact and extent of CO2 emission reduction are both presented.


NETL Studies on the Economic Feasibility of CO2 Capture Retrofits for the U.S. Power Plant Fleet

Date: 01/2014

            Contact: Kristin Gerdes

FE funds technologies applicable to both greenfield and retrofit applications for CO2 capture.  This presentation provides the highlights from various retrofit studies including: (1) Quality Guidelines on retrofit difficulty cost factors, (2) Reference PC and NGCC plants retrofitted with post-combustion capture, and (3) Extrapolation of PC retrofit study results to the entire U.S. coal-fired power plant fleet to examine the costs of capture for each unit and determines how EOR and 2nd Generation capture technologies might incentivize CO2 capture.


Energy Related Flow Diagrams

Date: 12/2013

            Contact: Erik Shuster

This document contains several energy related flow diagrams (Sankey diagrams). For a Sankey diagram, the width of the arrows is proportional to the flow quantity. The following energy related diagrams included in the document are: U.S. energy use, international oil flows, international and domestic coal import/exports, and international natural gas flows.


Assessment of the Distributed Generation Market Potential for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Date: 09/2013

            Contact: Katrina Krulla

NETL analyzed the strengths of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system in conjunction with distributed generation (DG) market segments in the U.S. and determined that natural gas compressor stations, grid strengthening, and data centers were potential early market-entry opportunities. These three DG market segments are projected to demand two gigawatts of additional power between now and 2018 and 25 GWs through 2040. This analysis showed that the DG SOFC system becomes cost competitive with other fossil-fuel based DG technologies after 25 MWe of installed capacity, around 2025. The SOFC DG application validates and enables utility scale fuel cell systems with carbon capture, and forms an essential first phase of the NETL technology development roadmap.


Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective Factsheet

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis provides insight into key criteria for the feasibility of seven types of energy technologies. The seven types of technologies include electricity from natural gas, co-firing of coal and biomass, nuclear fuel, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar thermal resources. The key criteria for evaluating these technologies are defined.


Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant Rev. 2

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Timothy Skone

Life Cycle Analysis of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plant. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Power Plant Presentation

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Timothy Skone

Life Cycle Analysis of a Natural Gas Combined Cycle plant. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Estimated U.S. Energy Use in 2012: Contributions from Fossil, Nuclear, and Renewable Energy

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Erik Shuster

A diagram of major energy sources for each sector of the U.S. economy depicted as flows in a Sankey diagram. Proportions of fossil, nuclear, and renewable energy provided for electricity generation and ultimately used by the residential, industrial, commercial, and transportation sectors of the economy are shown. This diagram rearranges and segregates information originally published by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, based on data from the Energy Information Administration's Monthly Energy Review, May 2013.


Life Cycle Analysis: Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Power Plant Final

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Timothy Skone

Life Cycle Analysis of a Natural Gas Combined Cycle plant. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis provides insight into key criteria for the feasibility of seven types of energy technologies. The seven types of technologies include electricity from natural gas, co-firing of coal and biomass, nuclear fuel, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar thermal resources. The key criteria for evaluating these technologies are defined.


Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective Report

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis provides insight into key criteria for the feasibility of seven types of energy technologies. The seven types of technologies include electricity from natural gas, co-firing of coal and biomass, nuclear fuel, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar thermal resources. The key criteria for evaluating these technologies are defined.


Greenhouse Gas Reductions in the Power Industry Using Domestic Coal and Biomass - Volume 2: PC Plants

Date: 02/2013

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

The objective of this study was to simulate biomass co-firing in greenfield Pulverized Coal (PC) power plants and examine the resulting performance, environmental response, and economic response. To develop a more complete understanding of the impact of co-feeding biomass, each case was examined using a limited life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) analysis, which examines GHG emissions beyond the plant stack. Included in the limited life cycle GHG analysis were anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from the production, processing, transportation, and fertilization of biomass and from mining, transporting and handling coal.


Fossil Energy RD&D: Reducing the Cost of CCUS for Coal Power Plants

Date: 02/2013

            Contact: John G. Wimer

DOE’s Office of Fossil Energy, NETL implements research, development and demonstration (RD&D) programs that are moving aggressively to address the challenge of reducing greenhouse gas emissions as a climate change mitigation strategy. In partnership with both the Nation’s research universities and the private sector, RD&D efforts are focused on maximizing system efficiency and performance, while minimizing the costs of new Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) technologies. Improving the efficiency of power generation systems reduces emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as other criteria pollutants while using less water and extending the life of our domestic energy resource base.


Impact of Load Following on Power Plant Cost and Performance

Date: 10/2012

            Contact: James Black

This study performed a review of the public literature and interviewed industry experts to determine the impact on cost and performance of forcing fossil fuel power plants without and with carbon capture to load follow in response to changes in demand or output from renewable power generation sources. There is some information to quantify the impact of load following on NGCC and PC plants without capture, however there is little information either experimental data or theoretical analysis on the impact on IGCC, oxycombustion, or any plants with carbon capture from load following.


LCA XII Presentation: Life Cycle GHG Inventory Sensitivity to Changes in Natural Gas System Parameters

Date: 10/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This presentation discusses life cycle inventories of cradle-to-gate delivered natural gas fuel and cradle-to-grave natural gas fired electricity generation with a focus on greenhouse gas emissions. The study looks at eight distinct sources of natural gas and performs a number of sensitivity studies. The results show that production rate, episodic emission factors and the flaring rate have the most impact on the cradle-to-gate emissions profile, while power plant heat rate or efficiency most affects the cradle-to-grave emissions.


LCA XII Presentation: Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Technology Assessment Compilation

Date: 10/2012

            Contact: Robert James

This presentation discusses a series of studies performed to compare a set of alternative sources (cofiring coal and biomass, unconventional natural gas, next generation nuclear, hydropower, geothermal, solar thermal and offshore wind) with common boundaries and assumptions.


Updated Costs (June 2011 Basis) for Selected Bituminous Baseline Cases

Date: 10/2012

            Contact: James Black

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity (Nov 2010) establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants fueled with bituminous coal, pulverized coal (PC) plants fueled with bituminous coal, and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The cost basis for that report was June 2007. This present report updates the cost of selected cases from that report to June 2011 dollars. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.


LCA XII Presentation: Exploring Economics and Environmental Performance: Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT)

Date: 10/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This presentation poster discusses the Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT). The Power LCAT is a flexible model and associated tool which calculates electricity production costs and tracks life cycle environmental performance for a range of power generation technologies.


LCA XII Presentation: Overview of Energy Life Cycle Analysis at NETL

Date: 10/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This presentation describes the life cycle analysis (LCA) process at NETL. NETL uses LCA as a tool and framework for evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of energy technology and policy options on a common basis. LCA includes the impacts of converting fuel to useful energy, infrastructure construction, extraction and transportation of fuel, and transport of the final energy product to the end user.


LCA XII Presentation: Modeling the Uncertainty of Fischer-Tropsch Jet Fuel Life Cycle Inventories with Monte Carlo Situation

Date: 10/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This presentation discusses the use of Monte Carlo simulation to model the uncertainty in a life cycle inventory of the gasification of coal and biomass. While the inventory is dominated by carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of the fuel, small changes to the feedstocks that are used to make the fuel can make the difference in complying with the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.


An Analysis of DSI's Impact on Dispatch Economics in PJM

Date: 09/2012

            Contact: Eric Grol

This analysis evaluates the marginal cost impact of installing dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and dry sorbent injection (DSI) on an existing subcritical pulverized coal unit in PJM, for compliance with the Mercury and Air Toxics Standard (MATS). The impact of compliance technology choice on dispatch position is highlighted.


LCA XII Presentation: Contribution of Biomass to the LCI of Cofiring Power

Date: 09/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This presentation discusses the impact of cofiring biomass in coal-fired power plants. Combustion of biomass in a boiler is carbon neutral, as the carbon dioxide emitted was taken up by the growth of the biomass during cultivation. However upstream processes such as land preparation, cultivation and harvesting, and transportation can offset the carbon taken up by the biomass.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Pulverized Coal and Biomass Co-firing Technology Assessment

Date: 09/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis evaluates the role of coal and biomass co-firing power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Coal and biomass co-firing power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report has been externally peer reviewed. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.


NETL Upstream Dashboard Tool

Date: 08/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

The goal of the Upstream Tool is to allow the user to customize key parameters specific to their Life Cycle case study or desired scenario, and generate customized Upstream Emissions results quickly and simply.


Techno-Economic Analysis of CO2 Capture-Ready Coal-Fired Power Plants

Date: 08/2012

            Contact: Eric Grol

This analysis evaluates CO2 capture-ready supercritical pulverized coal units. Cost and performance results are presented for capture-ready coal units that achieve a 30-year average emission rate of 1,000 Lb CO2/MWh. The analysis also includes a detailed discussion of the specific elements that comprise a capture-ready unit, as well as different design strategies to minimize costs. The benefits of R&D advances such as 2nd generation CO2 capture, and additional revenue from CO2 sales for enhanced oil recovery, are also presented, and are compared to other baseload generation options, such as natural gas combined cycle and nuclear.


Environmental Retrofit Tracking

Date: 07/2012

            Contact: Eric Grol

This presentation tracks environmental retrofits to the existing coal-fired power fleet, through various stages of project development. Many of the environmental compliance strategies that are expected to be implemented are analyzed with respect to recent regulatory initiatives, that may impact the existing coal-fired asset base. To view this document, when you open the file, click "Read Only."


Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT)

Date: 06/2012

            Contact: Justin Adder

The Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) is a high-level dynamic model that calculates production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind (with and without backup power). All of the fossil fuel technologies also include the option of carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. Power LCAT is targeted at helping policy makers, students, and interested stakeholders understand the economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with various electricity production options.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Natural Gas Technology Assessment (Brief)

Date: 06/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This study discusses the role of natural gas power in meeting the energy needs of the United States (U.S.). This includes the identification of key issues related to natural gas and, where applicable, analyses of environmental and cost aspects of natural gas power.


Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) Technical Guide

Date: 05/2012

            Contact: Justin Adder

Power LCAT is a high-level dynamic model that calculates production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies. This report summarizes key assumptions and results for version 2.0 of Power LCAT. This report has three goals: to explain the basic methodology used to calculate production costs and to estimate environmental performance; to provide a general overview of the model operation and initial results; and to demonstrate the wide range of options for conducting sensitivity analysis.


Advancing Oxycombustion Technology for Bituminous Coal Power Plants: An R&D Guide

Date: 04/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is funding research aimed at improving the performance and reducing the cost of oxycombustion. The objective of this study is to guide oxycombustion research in areas that can provide the largest benefits in electricity cost and plant performance. The advanced oxycombustion technologies evaluated in this study are categorized into four major areas: advanced boiler design, advanced oxygen production, advanced flue gas treatment, and innovative CO2 compression concepts.


Current and Future Technologies for Power Generation with Post-Combustion Carbon Capture

Date: 04/2012

            Contact: Robert Stevens

The objective of this study is to support DOE’s Carbon Capture and Advanced Combustion R&D Programs by completing an "R&D Pathway” study for PC power plants that employ post-combustion carbon capture. The pathway begins with representation of today's technology and extends to include emerging carbon capture, advanced steam conditions, and advanced CO2 compression with corresponding performance/cost estimates to illustrate routes to achieving the DOE goal of ≤ 35% increase in cost of electricity relative to a PC plant without CO2 capture.


QGESS: Process Modeling Design Parameters

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

The purpose of this section of the Quality Guidelines is to document the assumptions most commonly used in systems analysis studies and the basis for those assumptions. The large number of assumptions required for a thorough systems analysis make it impractical to document the entire set in each report. This document will serve as a comprehensive reference for these assumptions as well as their justification.


Research and Development Goals for CO2 Capture Technology

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

This document outlines the carbon capture goals set forth by DOE/NETL and provides a detailed breakdown and justification of their derivation.


QGESS: CO2 Impurity Design Parameters

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

This section of the Quality Guidelines provides recommended impurity limits for CO2 stream components for use in conceptual studies of CO2 carbon capture, utilization, and storage systems. These limits were developed from information consolidated from numerous studies and are presented by component. Impurity levels are provided for limitations of carbon steel pipelines, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), saline reservoir sequestration, and cosequestration of CO2 and H2S in saline reservoirs.


QGESS: Specifications for Selected Feedstocks

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

This document provides recommended specifications for various feedstocks that are commonly found in NETL-sponsored energy system studies. Adhering to these specifications should enhance the consistency of such studies. NETL recommends these guidelines be followed in the absence of any compelling market, project, or site-specific requirements in order to facilitate comparison of studies evaluating coal-based technologies.


QGESS: Technology Learning Curve (FOAK to NOAK)

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

This report summarizes costing methodologies employed by NETL for estimating future costs of mature commercial Nth-of-a-kind (NOAK) power plants from initial first-of-a-kind (FOAK) estimates for use in costing models and reports. It defines the specific steps and factors which can be used in such estimation calculations. The methodology within is based on knowledge of major plant component costs for various technologies.


Tracking New Coal-Fired Power Plants

Date: 01/2012

            Contact: Erik Shuster

This presentation provides an overview of proposed new coal-fired power plants that are under consideration. It focuses on those power plant development activities achieving significant progress toward completion, in order to more accurately assess the ability of this segment of the power generation industry to support adequate electricity capacity in various regions of the U.S.


Estimated U.S. Energy Use in 2010: Contributions from Fossil, Nuclear, and Renewable Energy

Date: 12/2011

            Contact: Ken Kern

A diagram of major energy sources for each sector of the U.S. economy depicted as flows in a Sankey diagram. Proportions of fossil, nuclear, and renewable energy provided for electricity generation and ultimately used by the residential, industrial, commercial, and transportation sectors of the economy are shown. This diagram rearranges and segregates information originally published by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, based on data from the Energy Information Administration's Annual Energy Review, 2010.


Recommended Project Finance Structures for the Economic Analysis of Fossil-Based Energy Projects - 2011

Date: 10/2011

            Contact: Wm. Morgan Summers

In this update to the 2008 report, the financial parameters to be used in economic analysis studies are updated and the issue of technology risk premium is revisited. Profiles for distributing Total Overnight Costs over various Capital Expenditure Periods (e.g. 3 and 5 years) and project financing costs that are representative of actual energy projects are also re-evaluated.


Life Cycle Analysis: Ethanol from Biomass - Presentation

Date: 09/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

Life Cycle Analysis of an Ethanol Plant utilizing Biomass. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs.


Life Cycle Analysis: Ethanol from Biomass - Appendix

Date: 09/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

Appendix of Life Cycle Analysis of an Ethanol Plant utilizing Biomass. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs.


Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion as a Near-Term CO2 Mitigation Strategy

Date: 09/2011

            Contact: Eric Grol

Circulating fluidized bed combustion systems have the potential to meet strict air quality guidelines currently being proposed (SO2, NOx, mercury, particulate). In addition, their fuel-flexibility can also allow for co-firing carbon neutral opportunity fuels, such as biomass, therefore reducing the CO2 footprint in the near-term. Building these plants with attention to the design considerations that will be needed to accommodate eventual CO2 capture (capture-ready) can also help future integration of full-scale capture.


Eliminating the Derate of Carbon Capture Retrofits

Date: 09/2011

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

Retrofitting existing PC plants with amine-based CO2 capture technology is thermally- and power-intensive. This study examines the benefit of installing a natural gas simple cycle to provide the auxiliaries required to operate the amine system such that the original power demand can still be met.


Near-Term Opportunities for Integrating Biomass into the U.S. Electricity Supply: Technical Considerations

Date: 08/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

In light of potential regulatory limits on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions, requirements for greater use of renewable fuels, and higher prices for some conventional fossil resources, over the course of the next few decades, biomass is expected to become an increasingly important source of electricity, heat, and liquid fuel. One near-term option for using biomass to generate electricity is to cofire biomass in coal-fired electricity plants. Doing so allows such plants to reduce GHG emissions and, in appropriate regulatory environments, to generate renewable-energy credits to recover costs. This report focuses on two aspects of biomass use: plant-site modifications, changes in operations, and costs associated with cofiring biomass; and the logistical issues associated with delivering biomass to the plant. The authors find that the main challenge is maintaining a consistent fuel supply; technical and regulatory factors can drive the decision to cofire; cofiring can increase costs, decrease revenue, and reduce GHG emissions; densification does not reduce plant costs but can reduce transportation costs, however current markets cannot support use of densified fuels. This study was sponsored by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The report is available on the RAND web-site at www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/TR984.html. ATTENTION: By clicking the link, you are leaving a U.S. Government website.


Cost and Performance of PC and IGCC Plants for a Range of Carbon Dioxide Capture

Date: 08/2011

            Contact: Kristen J. Gerdes

This study establishes the cost and performance for a range of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture levels for new supercritical pulverized coal and integrated gasification combined cycle power plants. Cost of avoiding CO2 emissions is calculated and utilized to find the optimum level of CO2 capture for each plant type.


Life Cycle Analysis: Ethanol from Biomass

Date: 08/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

Life Cycle Analysis of an Ethanol Plant utilizing Biomass. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs.


Supplying Biomass to Power Plants: A Model of the Costs of Utilizing Agricultural Biomass in Cofired Power Plants

Date: 08/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

U.S. power plants seek to diversify their fuel sources. Biomass energy is a renewable resource, generally with lower emissions than fossil fuels, and has a large, diverse base. To make decisions about investing in a facility that utilizes biomass, prospective users need information about infrastructure, logistics, costs, and constraints for the full biomass life cycle. The model developed in this work is designed to estimate the cost and availability of biomass energy resources from U.S. agricultural lands from the perspective of an individual power plant. As an illustrative example, the model estimates the availability and cost of using switchgrass or corn stover to power a cofired power plant in Illinois and estimates the plant-gate cost of producing biomass fuel, the relative proportions of switchgrass and corn stover, the mix of different land types, and the total area contributing the supplied energy. It shows that small variations in crop yields can lead to substantial changes in the amount, type, and spatial distribution of land that would produce the lowest-cost biomass for an energy facility. Land and crop choices would be very sensitive to policies governing greenhouse-gas emissions and carbon pricing, and the model demonstrates important implications for total land area requirements for supplying biomass fuel. This study was sponsored by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The report is available on the RAND web-site at www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/TR876.html. ATTENTION: By clicking the link, you are leaving a U.S. Government website.


Thermal Plant Emissions Due to Intermittent Renewable Power Integration

Date: 05/2011

            Contact: Maria A. Hanley

Answering the question of whether operating one or more natural-gas turbines to firm variable wind or solar power would result in increased Nitrous oxide (NOx) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions compared to full-power steady-state operation of natural-gas turbines, the analysis demonstrates that CO2 emissions reductions are likely to be 75-80% of those presently assumed by policy makers. NOx reduction depends strongly on the type of NOx control and how it is dispatched. For the best system examined, using 20% renewable penetration, the NOx reductions are 30-50% of those expected; in the worst, emissions increased by 2-4 times the expected reductions.


QGESS: Cost Estimation Methodology for NETL Assessments of Power Plant Performance

Date: 04/2011

            Contact: Wm. Morgan Summers

This paper summarizes the cost estimation methodology employed by NETL in its assessment of power plant performance. A clear understanding of the methodology used is essential for allowing different power plant technologies to be compared on a similar basis. Though these guidelines are tailored for power plants, they can also be applied to a variety of different energy conversion plants (e.g., coal to liquids, syngas generation, hydrogen). This document is part of the Office of Program Planning and Analysis’s Quality Guidelines for Energy Systems Studies (QGESS) series.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 3c: Natural Gas Combined Cycle at Elevation

Date: 03/2011

            Contact: James Black

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants Study, Volume 3b: Low Rank Coal to Electricity establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically pulverized coal (PC) and circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions. The study serves as a benchmark to track the progress of DOE Advanced Power Systems R&D and as a baseline for analyzing fossil energy plant options. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 3b: Low Rank Coal to Electricity: Combustion Cases

Date: 03/2011

            Contact: James Black

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants Study, Volume 3b: Low Rank Coal to Electricity establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically pulverized coal (PC) and circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions. The study serves as a benchmark to track the progress of DOE Advanced Power Systems R&D and as a baseline for analyzing fossil energy plant options. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.


Life Cycle Analysis: Power Studies Compilation Report

Date: 01/2011

            Contact: Robert James

Presentation for life cycle analysis compilation of the power LCA reports. Develops an inventory of emissions results, and calculates life cycle costs for each plant with and without CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Existing Pulverized Coal (EXPC) Power Plant

Date: 12/2010

            Contact: Robert James

Life Cycle Analysis of an Existing PC plant with CCS Retrofit. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant

Date: 12/2010

            Contact: Robert James

Life Cycle Analysis of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plant. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Power Plant

Date: 12/2010

            Contact: Robert James

Life Cycle Analysis of an NGCC plant. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Supercritical Pulverized Coal (SCPC) Power Plant

Date: 12/2010

            Contact: Robert James

Life Cycle Analysis of a Supercritical PC plant with CCS Retrofit. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity

Date: 11/2010

            Contact: James Black

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants Study, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle, pulverized coal, and natural gas combined cycle plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions. The study serves as a benchmark to track the progress of DOE Advanced Power Systems R&D and as a baseline for analyzing fossil energy plant options. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.


Life Cycle Analysis: Power Studies Compilation Report

Date: 10/2010

            Contact: Robert James

Life cycle analysis compilation of the power LCA reports. Develops an inventory of emissions results, and calculates life cycle costs for each plant with and without CCS.


Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet Future Thermoelectric Generation Requirements

Date: 09/2010

            Contact: Erik Shuster

Future freshwater withdrawal and consumption from domestic thermoelectric generation sources were estimated for five cases, using AEO 2010 regional projections for capacity additions and retirements. Results demonstrate that carbon capture technologies could increase the water demand of thermoelectric power plants and indicate that consumption is expected to increase in all cases.


Life Cycle Analysis: Power Studies Compilation Report Presentation

Date: 09/2010

            Contact: Robert James

Presentation for life cycle analysis compilation of the Power LCA Reports. Develops an inventory of emissions results, and calculates life cycle costs for each plant with and without CCS.


Cost and Performance for Low-Rank Pulverized Coal Oxycombustion Energy Plants

Date: 09/2010

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

This report provides analyses on oxycombustion of lignite and subbituminous coals in PC and CFBC power plants. Steam conditions examined are super- and ultrasupercritical. In addition, various CO2 purification techniques were compared.


Life Cycle Analysis of Coal and Natural Gas-Fired Power Plants

Date: 07/2010

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This presentation summarizes results of a full life cycle assessment on greenhouse gas emissions for five baseload power plant technologies, as conducted for the EPRI coal fleet meeting held on July 20, 2010. Driving factors, global warming potential, energy losses, electricity costs, methane content, air pollutants and upstream emissions are discussed, ranked and evaluated.


Technical Workshop Report: Improving the Thermal Efficiency of Coal-Fired Power Plants in the United States

Date: 03/2010

            Contact: Chris Nichols

NETL hosted an industry workshop on February 25-26, 2010, in Baltimore, MD to identify opportunities to improve coal-fired power plant efficiency. The workshop built on a previous meeting held on July 15-16, 2009, in Chicago, IL, and brought together 53 leading industry experts, utility owners and operators, equipment vendors, energy consultants, power industry associations, and research organizations to: (1) explore technical opportunities to improve the thermal efficiency of existing coal-fired power plants; (2) identify the barriers and challenges that inhibit implementation of these opportunities; and (3) identify specific initiatives that can substantially increase efficiency across the fleet.


Model Documentation: Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model Version 2.0 AltSim 2.0

Date: 03/2010

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This paper summarizes the structure and methodology used in the AltSim model, presents results for selected scenarios, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis of those results. The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation program which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels, including corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas, coal, and coal with biomass. This model is available for download here.


Investment Decisions for Baseload Power Plants

Date: 01/2010

            Contact: Anthony Zammerilli

This report, prepared by ICF International, provides an identification and discussion of factors considered for investment decisions for base load power generation in the U.S.(for example levelized cost of electricity, design and construction lag, fuel cost and variability, technology performance risk, initial capital outlay, water use, future cost of carbon emissions) and discusses their relative importance in investment decisions. There is a detailed discussion on current and advanced power plant technologies, including ultra-supercritical coal power, coal power with carbon dioxide capture and storage, and nuclear power. In addition, there is a detailed description and analysis of two case studies from actual power plant projects to substantiate the identified objective functions from the above items.


Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions Model, CUBE Version 1.0

Date: 01/2010

            Contact: Timothy Skone

The Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions model, version 1.0 (CUBE 1.0) determines the life cycle GHG emissions of biomass feedstocks from planting the biomass to delivery to the bioenergy plant gate ("farm-to-gate"). Included are emissions associated with feedstock production, transportation, and processing. The feedstocks in CUBE 1.0 include three dedicated energy crops (corn grain, switchgrass, and mixed prairie biomass) and two biomass residues (forest residue and mill residue). An accompanying report (also available for download on the NETL website) describes model layout and function. A free Analytica player for viewing and using this model can be downloaded from Lumina Decision Systems at: http://www.lumina.com/ana/player.htm.


Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions Model Documentation, CUBE Version 1.0

Date: 01/2010

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This report accompanies the Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions model, version 1.0 (CUBE 1.0), and provides explanation of model content and use. It is intended to complement extensive documentation contained in the model itself. CUBE 1.0, available for download here, determines the life cycle GHG emissions of biomass feedstocks from planting the biomass to delivery to the bioenergy plant gate ("farm-to-gate"). Included are emissions associated with feedstock production, transportation, and processing. The feedstocks in CUBE 1.0 include three dedicated energy crops (corn grain, switchgrass, and mixed prairie biomass) and two biomass residues (forest residue and mill residue). A free Analytica player for viewing and using CUBE 1.0 can be downloaded from Lumina Decision Systems at: http://www.lumina.com/ana/player.htm.


Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool

Date: 10/2009

            Contact: John G. Wimer

The Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool illustrates key data from the Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity report. The tool provides an interactive summary of the full report and serves as an electronic desk reference for quickly obtaining plant cost and performance data and for comparing and contrasting several technologies. Performance, emissions, and cost data presented include: net and gross output, heat rate, efficiency, water use, SO2, NOx, CO2, PM, and Hg emissions, total plant cost and levelized cost of electricity. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.


U.S. Capacity Margin Analysis Model

Date: 09/2009

            Contact: John G. Wimer

This interactive tool models U.S. electric capacity margins for eight NERC regions. Users can change the plant construction probability of currently proposed capacity and the availability of each fuel mix. User inputs are compared to NERC's 2008 capacity margin forecasts. This tool can be used to look at various "what if" scenarios.


A Kinetic Approach to the Catalytic Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas

Date: 09/2009

            Contact:

In this paper, the authors propose a method for analyzing mercury oxidation catalyst results in a kinetic framework using the bulk reaction rate for oxidized mercury formation normalized by either the catalyst mass or surface area. Four mercury oxidation catalysts were tested in a packed bed reactor in the presence of flue gas generated by the NETL 500 lb/h coal combustor: Ir, Ir/HCl, Darco FGD activated carbon, and Thief/HCl. The catalyst-normalized results allow for more quantitative analysis of mercury oxidation catalyst data and a model that will allow for efficient scaling up from laboratory-scale to larger-scale studies.


Update of Regulatory Activity Impacting Coal-Fired Power Plants

Date: 09/2009

            Contact: Eric Grol

This presentation evaluates recent regulatory initiatives that could have an impact on new and existing coal-fired power plants. The relevant regulations are identified, along with possible compliance strategies.  To view this document, when you open the file, click "Read Only."


U.S. Electricity Market View Interactive Tool

Date: 09/2009

            Contact: John G. Wimer

This interactive tool shows U.S. electric capacity and generation by prime mover and primary fuel categories for each of the ten NERC regions.


Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet Future Thermoelectric Generation Requirements: 2009 Update

Date: 09/2009

            Contact: Chris Nichols

Future freshwater withdrawal and consumption from domestic thermoelectric generation sources were estimated for five cases, using AEO 2009 regional projections for capacity additions and retirements. Results demonstrate that carbon capture technologies could increase the water demand of thermoelectric power plants and indicate that consumption is expected to increase in all cases.


Assessment of Power Plants That Meet Proposed Greenhouse Gas Emission Performance Standards

Date: 05/2009

            Contact: Eric Grol

Technoeconomic assessment of western U.S. coal-fired power plants (greenfield IGCC and supercritical PC, and existing subcritical PC) each with three CO2 capture levels: 0%, 90%, and a level appropriate to meet California's standard of 1,100 lb CO2/MWh.


DOE NETL's Carbon Capture R&D Program for Existing Coal Fired Power Plants

Date: 02/2009

            Contact: Chris Nichols

A review and assessment of the DOE research and development (R&D) program directed specifically at post- and oxy-combustion CO2 capture technologies that can be retrofit to existing coal-fired power plants, and designed into new plants. The strategic plan for this program includes the development of advanced CO2 capture and compression technologies for both existing and new coal-fired power plants that, when combined, can achieve 90 percent CO2 capture at less than a 35 percent increase in cost of electricity (COE). Such technologies could then be available for commercial use by 2020.


Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet Future Thermoelectric Generation Requirements: 2008 Update

Date: 09/2008

            Contact: Chris Nichols

Future freshwater withdrawal and consumption from domestic thermoelectric generation sources were estimated for five cases, using AEO 2008 regional projections for capacity additions and retirements. Results demonstrate that carbon capture technologies could increase the water demand of thermoelectric power plants and indicate that consumption is expected to increase in all cases.


Pulverized Coal Oxycombustion Power Plants: Presentation

Date: 09/2008

            Contact: John G. Wimer

This presentation reviews the cost and performance baseline study for the oxycombustion process discussed in the report of the same title. The results of this study are intended to serve as a comparison for related studies.


An Update on DOE NETL's Mercury Control Technology

Date: 07/2008

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This paper focuses on results from the Phase II mercury (Hg) control technology field testing program funded by DOE Innovations for Existing Plants (IEP) Program with the data segregated by technology. In addition, the results of NETL's economic analysis of Hg control via activated carbon injection (ACI) are presented, along with a discussion of potential coal utilization by-product (CUB) impacts. Preliminary results from NETL's Phase III Hg field testing program are also presented.


Reducing CO2 Emissions by Improving the Efficiency of the Existing Coal-Fired Power Plant Fleet

Date: 07/2008

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This presentation contains graphics from the report by the same name.


DOE NETL's Mercury Control Technology Field Testing Program: Preliminary Economic Analysis of Wet FGD Co Benefit Enhancement Technologies

Date: 05/2008

            Contact:

This report provides "study-level" cost estimates for two technologies designed to promote Hg0 oxidation and enhance wet FGD Hg capture: fixed-bed Hg0 oxidation catalysts, and coal treatment with a calcium bromide (CaBr2) solution. The economics were developed for "representative" 500 megawatt (MW) units burning three types of low-rank coal: North Dakota (ND) lignite, Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous, and a blend of 50% Texas lignite (TxL) and 50% PRB subbituminous coals, where each unit is assumed to be equipped with a large cold-side electrostatic precipitator (CS-ESP) for particulate control and a wet FGD system for SO2 and Hg2+ co-removal.


Advances in CO2 Capture Technology - The U.S. Department of Energy's Carbon Sequestration Program

Date: 04/2008

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This paper discusses the current status of the development of CO2 capture technology. Among the technologies discussed are contemporary processes including gas phase separation, absorption into a liquid, and adsorption on a solid as well as hybrid processes. The paper also reviews several innovative concepts, such as metal organic frameworks, ionic liquids, and enzyme-based systems.


CO2 Capture-Ready Coal Power Plants

Date: 04/2008

            Contact: John G. Wimer

This report examines the question of whether it is more cost effective to design a new plant in anticipation of future restrictions on carbon emissions so that the plant is CO2 capture-ready or to proceed with no anticipation of a future retrofit. Specifically, the timing of the optimal investment decision in assessed by applying a simplified discounted cash flow tool (DCF) to determine the sensitivity of the relationship between the costs of electricity of each option to the time value of money. See Carbon Storage Program Overview.


Exploring NEMS for Integrated Assessments of Retrofitting or Repowering the Fleet of Coal Fired Plants. Volume III: Consumer and Producer Surplus Effects

Date: 04/2008

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This volume discusses a methodology that was devised to estimate net benefits from standard National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) output.


Deployment of Advanced Coal Power in the U.S. under a Range of Carbon Tax Scenarios

Date: 01/2008

            Contact: Chris Nichols

The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) was exercised to forecast market penetration for advanced coal power with CO2 capture under a range of CO2 emission tax scenarios, considering market-based incentives for low carbon emission power and improved technology performance consistent with the DOE/FE research portfolio.


Exploring NEMS for Integrated Assessments of Retrofitting or Repowering the Fleet of Coal Fired Plants. Volume II: Adding PC Repowering to NEMS, Integrated Assessments

Date: 01/2008

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This study envisions repowering by means of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology configured for capture and sequestration (CCS). Cost and performance factors were added to the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) for a brownfield setting, wherein the site's ancillary equipment and infrastructure is used, but not its existing steam turbine.


Exploring NEMS for Integrated Assessments of Retrofitting or Repowering the Fleet of Coal Fired Plants. Volume 1: Adding PC Retrofits to NEMS - Initial Testing

Date: 01/2008

            Contact: Chris Nichols

An integrated analysis was undertaken using a generic model of retrofit costs as a function of basic plant characteristics (such as heat rate) in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Modifications to NEMS were made to determine tradeoffs between retrofit, retirement, and the purchase of emission allowances.


Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants

Date: 11/2007

            Contact: John G. Wimer

This study evaluates the technical and economic impacts of removing CO2 from a typical existing US coal-fired electric power plant using an advanced amine-based post-combustion CO2 capture system.  The study investigates various levels of CO2 capture (30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%).  The primary impacts are quantified in terms of plant electrical output reduction, thermal efficiency reduction, CO2 emissions reduction, retrofit investment costs, and the incremental cost of generating electricity resulting from the addition of the CO2 capture systems to the selected study unit.


Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Power Plants Presentation

Date: 11/2007

            Contact: John G. Wimer

This presentation discusses the technical report of the same title. The underlying study evaluates the technical and economic impacts of removing CO2 from a typical US coal-fired electric power plan using an advanced amine-based post-combustion CO2 capture system.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants: Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity

Date: 05/2007

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

This reference contains brief summaries of each of the 12 power plant configurations that were analyzed in Volume 1 of the Cost and Performance Baseline Study, an independent assessment of the cost and performance of fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), pulverized coal (PC), and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.


DOE NETL's Phase II Mercury Control Technology Field Testing Program: UPDATED Economic Analysis of Activated Carbon Injection

Date: 05/2007

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This report provides "study-level" cost estimates for 12 of the Phase II ACI field testing sites that have been completed. This analysis was carried out to provide DOE/NETL a means of measuring its success in achieving the target of reducing baseline mercury control costs by 25 to 50%. Mercury control cost estimates are presented for: conventional (untreated) ACI, chemically-treated ACI, and conventional ACI coupled with the introduction of a sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) to the coal prior to combustion. The economic analyses were conducted on a plant-specific basis, meaning that the economics are dependent on the actual power plant operating conditions and coal properties observed during full-scale field testing at each of these Phase II sites.


NETL's 2005 Coal Power Plant Database

Date: 04/2007

            Contact: Erik Shuster

The NETL 2005 Coal Power Plant Database consolidates large quantities of information on coal-fired power plants in a single location. The database contains 191 fields and provides information on over 1,700 boilers and associated units. General fields in the database contain location, fuel, emissions, generation, cooling, and firing information for coal power units in the United States. The information is largely based off of the most recent release of the Annual Steam-Electric Plant Operation and Design data form, Energy Information Agency (EIA) Form 767 database report, available at the time of the update. The update took place in 2007 and the majority of the data used came from the 2005 release of EIA's Form 767 database report. Since then, Form 767 has been discontinued. Similar data that is more current can be found in the EIA-923 and 860 Database Annual Electric Generator Reports. NOTE: Click here for access to the database.


Brownfield IGCCs as an Option in the National Energy Modeling System NEMS

Date: 02/2007

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This report presents a methodology for calculating capital costs for a brownfield IGCC as a retrofit option for PC plants, relative to the greenfield cost. A 153 $/kW capital cost reduction was estimated for a repower IGCC compared to a greenfield facility, which compared well with other cited cost saving estimates.


Mercury Capture and Fate Using Wet FGD at Coal-Fired Power Plants

Date: 09/2006

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This paper provides an assessment of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory research and development efforts to optimize mercury capture in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems and characterize the fate of mercury in the resultant by-products. The first portion of the paper provides background information on regulatory drivers relative air pollution control technologies. The second section addresses the mercury and coal utilization by-products research areas and provides details on related projects.


Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy's Power Plant Water Management R and D Program

Date: 10/2005

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This paper provides background information on the relationship between water use and thermoelectric power generation. The documents describes the R&D activities currently being sponsored by DOE/NETL's IEP program to address current and future water-energy issues.


DOE-NETL's Power Plant Water Management R and D Program Responding to Emerging Issues

Date: 01/2005

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This presentation provides an overview of the water needs of fossil energy power generation technologies and the methods used to project future water consumption levels. A final review is also provided on the NETL Power Plant Water R&D Program research objectives.


Coal-Based Integrated Coal Gasification Combined-Cycle: Market Penetration Recommendations and Strategies: Final Report

Date: 09/2004

            Contact: John G. Wimer

This study reviews the market potential for a typical coal-based IGCC technology in the U.S. from 2004 to 2025. It identifies a number of recommendations designed to enhance IGCC market penetration opportunities given the uncertainties of the future. The study is based upon the latest views and data from experts in the industry. The study provides detailed economic and financial modeling/analyses of recent relevant investment decisions. Several future scenarios are assessed using the Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS).


NETL Carbon Sequestration Program: US Perspective on CO2 Capture and Separation

Date: 04/2004

            Contact: John G. Wimer

This presentation outlines the NETL Carbon Sequestration Program and the pre- and post-combustion technologies under which CO2 capture is proposed. The presentation also discusses the modeling and assessment tools used to evaluate the performance of each technology. The final section reviews ongoing R&D projects and highlights their progress.