Where is CO2 storage happening today?
||Sleipner Project (Norway)
Carbon dioxide (CO2) storage is currently happening across the United States and around the world. Large, commercial-scale projects, like the Sleipner CO2 Storage Site in Norway, the Weyburn-Midale CO2 Project in Canada, and the In Salah project in Algeria, have been injecting CO2 for many years. Each of these projects stores more than 1 million tons of CO2 per year. Large-scale efforts are currently underway in Africa, China, Australia, and Europe, too. These commercial-scale projects are demonstrating that large volumes of CO2 can be safely and permanently stored.
Additionally, a multitude of pilot efforts are underway in different parts of the world to determine suitable locations and technologies for future long-term CO2 storage. To date, more than 200 small-scale CO2 storage projects (including in-development and completed) have been carried out worldwide (see NETL Carbon Capture and Storage Database).
The Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) Initiative established a foundation that is being further enhanced by additional small- and large-scale projects, addressing specific applied research for injectivity, capacity verification, and safe geologic storage progressing toward commercialization of the technology. The purpose of small-scale characterization and injection projects is to explore and validate various depositional systems throughout basins within the United States and the capability to inject into clastic and carbonate depositional formations, coal seams, and basalts, and validate regional seals to contain injected CO2. These small-scale projects validate that CO2 storage resources are available in the target formations throughout the region, as well as validate their potential injection rates through injectivity testing. Eighteen (18) injections have been completed thus far with over 1.35 million tons of CO2 injected.
Large-scale field tests in different geological storage classes must be conducted to confirm that CO2 capture, transportation, injection, and storage can be achieved safely, permanently, and economically. Results from these tests will provide a more thorough understanding of migration and permanent storage of CO2 within various open and closed depositional systems. The storage types and formations being tested are considered regionally significant and are expected to have the potential to store hundreds of years of CO2 stationary source emissions. There are several large-scale CO2 tests (tests injecting at least 1 million metric tons of CO2), including the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership’s (SECARB) Cranfield project (Mississippi) and the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium’s Illinois Basin Decatur CO2 Project (Illinois). Results obtained from these efforts will provide the foundation for validating that CCS technologies can be commercially deployed throughout the United States. These large-scale projects will be necessary to validate storage projects integrated with carbon capture technologies from various CO2 sources and geologic storage in all storage types in multiple basins throughout the United States.