Chemical Solvent Carbon Dioxide Capture

Solvent-based carbon dioxide (CO2) capture involves chemical or physical sorption of CO2 from flue gas into a liquid carrier. While solvent-based systems are in commercial use today, they have not been applied to removing large volumes of CO2. Research projects in this pathway address technical challenges to solvent-based CO2 capture, such as large flue gas volume, relatively low CO2 concentration, flue gas contaminants, and high parasitic power demand for solvent recovery.  Brief descriptions of several National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Research and Development projects are provided below, followed by additional sources of information.

Chemical Solvent Carbon Dioxide Capture Projects


Ammonia-Based Process for Multi-Component Removal from Flue Gas
The research for this project is focused on developing an ammonia-based wet scrubbing process for capturing CO2 in coal combustion flue gas, while controlling multiple acidic gases and fine particulate matter. Additionally, the ammonia solution will be used to produce ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate by-products for fertilizer production.

Amine-Based Process for CO2 Scrubbing from Flue Gas
This project focuses on the development of an aqueous solution of amine and soluble potassium carbonate.  CO2 from combustion flue gas dissolves into the solution to form amine-associated carbamate, which rapidly reacts with potassium carbonate to form less-soluble potassium bicarbonate that precipitates from solution.  Precipitated potassium bicarbonate is further physically separated from the solution and heated to regenerate back to potassium carbonate and release concentrated CO2 gas.

Related Papers and Publications: