Oil & Natural Gas Projects
Exploration and Production Technologies
Development of Fine-Particulate Emission Factors and Speciation Profiles for
Oil and Gas-Fired Combustion Systems
This project was selected in response to DOE's Oil Exploration and Production
solicitation DE-PS26-00NT41048, focus area Oil and Gas-Effective Environmental
Protection. The goal of this section of the solicitation was to promote cost-effective
environmental protection and enhance environmental performance to encourage
maximum recovery of U.S. petroleum resources.
The objective of this work was to develop and test new techniques and methodologies
for characterizing emissions from stationary combustion sources fired by oil
and gas. These technologies and methodologies will provide information to assess
the source contributions of combustion sources with respect to ambient fine
(smaller than 2.5 microns) and ultrafine (smaller than 0.1 microns) particulate
GE Energy & Environmental Research Corp. (GE EER)
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standard technique for measuring
particulate matter is known to overestimate particulates. This can have a significant
impact on oil, gas, and coal-fired energy sources. This project developed a
new sampling system and analysis and measurement technologies for determining
potentially significant sources of emissions subject to the new federal PM2.5
Fine Particulate air quality regulations, providing sound, science-based data
for realistic compliance standards.
The objective of this work was to develop a more accurate way of measuring particulate
matter of <2.5 microns (PM2.5)_from oil and gas-fired combustion systems.
In addition to developing a smaller-scale apparatus, the researchers also generated
emission-factor information that had never been available before. The information
generated in this project ultimately will be used to develop compliance standards
that protect the environment while minimizing the compliance burdens of industry.
In July 1997, EPA proposed new fine particle ambient air quality standards for
fine particles. Since then an ambient-air monitoring network has been established
to measure PM2.5. New methods are needed to develop combustion-source emission
factors and chemical speciation profiles for primary particulate matter and
secondary particle precursors. A standard method for PM2.5 characterization
will help formulate State Implementation Plans by assisting in the development
of emission inventories, characterization of impacts, and assessment of appropriate
control technologies. This research area has been identified as a priority by
NARSTO (formerly North
American Research Strategy for Tropospheric Ozone) in its PM Science Plan
The testing plan provided detailed source-characterization information, including
ultrafine-particle emissions, size fractionation, transition and other metals,
metal species, speciated semi-volatile and volatile organic compounds, organic
and elemental carbon, nitrates, and sulfates. In addition to fine/ultrafine
particulate sampling, the test protocol included measurements of NOx, CO, CO2,
SO2, SO3, total hydrocarbons, NH3, and speciated volatile organic compounds.
Combustion sources tested included natural gas-fired combustion turbines (single
and combined-cycle), reciprocating engines, process heaters, gas- and heavy
oil-fired boilers representative of equipment utilized in power generation and
industrial applications, and dual fuel-fired (natural gas/oil) commercial or
industrial-scale combustion systems.
Two source-characterization test methods were assessed: a dilution tunnel/long-residence
time chamber with selective 2.5 micron sample inlets that use a size-selective
in-stack inlet followed by dilution but minimal residence time before sample
collection trains. Both systems can apply similar arrays of sample collection
techniques, such as filters and denuders to characterize particle mass, size,
chemical composition, physical characteristics, and gaseous pollutants.
A series of tests using a pilot-scale combustor at GE EER's facilities in Irvine,
CA, will seek to define dilution tunnel design/operating parameters to accurately
measure PM2.5 emissions for a wide range of source types, resulting in an improved
measurement system design and methodology.
Numerous topic reports are available from GE EER on research carried out during
Current Status (October 2005)
The project is complete.
Project Start: September 6, 2000
Project End: June 10, 2004
Anticipated DOE Contribution: $821,956
Performer Contribution: $300,000 (26% of total)
NETL - Kathleen Stirling (firstname.lastname@example.org or 918-699-2005)
E&E Research - Glenn England (email@example.com or 949-859-8851)