Richard A. Dennis
Technology Manager, Turbines
National Energy Technology Laboratory
3610 Collins Ferry Road
P.O. Box 880
Morgantown, WV 26507-0880
Mark C. Freeman
National Energy Technology Laboratory
626 Cochrans Mill Road
P.O. Box 10940
Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940
Margaret S. Wooldridge
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
University of Michigan
2350 Hayward Street
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125
DOE Share: $499,998.00
Performer Share: $135,563.00
Total Award Value: $635,561.00
Performer website: Regents of the University of Michigan - http://www.umich.edu
Rapid Compression Facility (RCF) experiments will be conducted to extend the high-quality, low-uncertainty experimental database of high hydrogen content (HHC) combustion kinetic benchmarks over a range of operating conditions, including pressures (10–25 atmospheres), temperatures (700–1700K), and the effects of dilution with exhaust gases (where uncertainties in third body coefficients become particularly important). Flammability limits and flame/auto-ignition inter-actions will be determined computationally and experimentally. The RCF data will provide rigorous targets for development of accurate, well validated, detailed, and reduced chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms for HHC combustion, including nitrogen oxide (NOx) chemistry.
University of Michigan Rapid Compression Facility.
Program Background and Project Benefits
Turbines convert heat energy to mechanical energy by expanding a hot, compressed working fluid through a series of airfoils. Combustion turbines compress air, mix and combust it with a fuel (natural gas, coal-derived synthesis gas [syngas], or hydrogen), and then expand the combustion gases through the airfoils. Expansion turbines expand a working fluid like steam or supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2
) that has been heated in a heat exchanger by an external heat source. These two types of turbines are used in conjunction to form a combined cycle— with heat from the combustion gases used as the heat source for the working fluid— improving efficiency and reducing emissions. If oxygen is used for combustion in place of air, then the combustion gases consist mostly of carbon dioxide (CO2
) and water, and the CO2
can be easily separated and sent to storage or used for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). Alternatively, the CO2
/steam combustion gases can be expanded directly in an oxy-fuel turbine. Turbines are the backbone of power generation in the US, and the diverse power cycles containing turbines provide a variety of electricity generation options for fossil derived fuels. The efficiency of combustion turbines has steadily increased as advanced technologies have provided manufacturers with the ability to produce highly advanced turbines that operate at very high temperatures. The Advanced Turbines program is developing technologies in four key areas that will accelerate turbine performance, efficiency, and cost effectiveness beyond current state-of-the-art and provide tangible benefits to the public in the form of lower cost of electricity (COE), reduced emissions of criteria pollutants, and carbon capture options. The Key Technology areas for the Advanced Hydrogen Turbines Program are: (1) Hydrogen Turbines, (2) Supercritical CO2
Power Cycles, (3) Oxy-Fueled Turbines, and (4) Advanced Steam Turbines.
Hydrogen turbine technology research is being conducted with the goal of producing reliable, affordable, and environmentally friendly electric power in response to the Nation's increasing energy challenges. NETL is leading the research, development, and demonstration of technologies to achieve power production from high hydrogen content (HHC) fuels derived from coal that is clean, efficient, and cost-effective; minimize carbon dioxide (CO2
) emissions; and help maintain the Nation's leadership in the export of gas turbine equipment. These goals are being met by developing the most advanced technology in the areas of materials, cooling, heat transfer, manufacturing, aerodynamics, and machine design. Success in these areas will allow machines to be designed that have higher efficiencies and power output with lower emissions and lower cost.
The University of Michigan will conduct Rapid Compression Facility (RCF) experiments to extend the high-quality, low-uncertainty experimental database of high hydrogen content (HHC) combustion kinetic benchmarks over a range of operating conditions, including pressures (10–25 atmospheres), temperatures (700–1700K), and the effects of dilution with exhaust gases (where uncertainties in third body coefficients become particularly important). Combustion research conducted under the Advanced Turbine Program seeks to improve the understanding of hydrogen combustion and develop improved tools to model combustion behavior. This research will lead to combustor designs that can successfully utilize hydrogen and reduce emissions.