Project No: FE0003931
Performer: National Institute of Standards & Technology


Contacts

Richard A. Dennis
Technology Manager, Turbines
National Energy Technology Laboratory
3610 Collins Ferry Road
P.O. Box 880
Morgantown, WV 26507-0880
304-285-4515
richard.dennis@netl.doe.gov

Travis Shultz
Project Manager
National Energy Technology Laboratory
3610 Collins Ferry Road
P.O. Box 880
Morgantown, WV 26507-0880
304- 285-1370
travis.shultz@netl.doe.gov

Allan Harvey
Principal Investigator
National Institute of Standards and
Technology
325 Broadway
Boulder, CO 80305
303-497-3555
aharvey@boulder.nist.gov

Duration
Award Date:  10/01/2011
Project Date:  03/31/2015

Cost
DOE Share: $600,970.00
Performer Share: $0.00
Total Award Value: $600,970.00

Performer website: National Institute of Standards & Technology - http://www.nist.gov

Advanced Energy Systems - Hydrogen Turbines

Thermophysical Properties of CO2 and CO2-Rich Mixtures

Project Description
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) will execute experimental and modeling work on the thermodynamics of the CO2/H2O system, modeling work on the viscosity of pure CO2, and experimental and modeling work on the thermal conductivity of pure CO2. Specific activities include:

Data obtained in this project for thermal conductivity of pure CO2 compared with current state-of-the-art correlation.

Data obtained in this project for thermal conductivity of pure CO2
compared with current state-of-the-art correlation.


Program Background and Project Benefits

Turbines convert heat energy to mechanical energy by expanding a hot, compressed working fluid through a series of airfoils. Combustion turbines compress air, mix and combust it with a fuel (natural gas, coal-derived synthesis gas [syngas], or hydrogen), and then expand the combustion gases through the airfoils. Expansion turbines expand a working fluid like steam or supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) that has been heated in a heat exchanger by an external heat source. These two types of turbines are used in conjunction to form a combined cycle— with heat from the combustion gases used as the heat source for the working fluid— improving efficiency and reducing emissions. If oxygen is used for combustion in place of air, then the combustion gases consist mostly of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water, and the CO2 can be easily separated and sent to storage or used for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). Alternatively, the CO2/steam combustion gases can be expanded directly in an oxy-fuel turbine. Turbines are the backbone of power generation in the US, and the diverse power cycles containing turbines provide a variety of electricity generation options for fossil derived fuels. The efficiency of combustion turbines has steadily increased as advanced technologies have provided manufacturers with the ability to produce highly advanced turbines that operate at very high temperatures. The Advanced Turbines program is developing technologies in four key areas that will accelerate turbine performance, efficiency, and cost effectiveness beyond current state-of-the-art and provide tangible benefits to the public in the form of lower cost of electricity (COE), reduced emissions of criteria pollutants, and carbon capture options. The Key Technology areas for the Advanced Hydrogen Turbines Program are: (1) Hydrogen Turbines, (2) Supercritical CO2 Power Cycles, (3) Oxy-Fueled Turbines, and (4) Advanced Steam Turbines.

Hydrogen turbine technology research is being conducted with the goal of producing reliable, affordable, and environmentally friendly electric power in response to the Nation's increasing energy challenges. NETL is leading the research, development, and demonstration of technologies to achieve power production from high hydrogen content (HHC) fuels derived from coal that is clean, efficient, and cost-effective; minimize carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions; and help maintain the Nation's leadership in the export of gas turbine equipment. These goals are being met by developing the most advanced technology in the areas of materials, cooling, heat transfer, manufacturing, aerodynamics, and machine design. Success in these areas will allow machines to be designed that have higher efficiencies and power output with lower emissions and lower cost.

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) will execute experimental and modeling work on the thermodynamics of the carbon dioxide/water (CO2/H2O) system; modeling work on the viscosity of pure CO2; and experimental and modeling work on the thermal conductivity of pure CO2. This work will expand the ranges over which CO2 property data has been tested and incorporate the data into NIST REFPROP software. This data will improve the understanding of CO2 behavior over conditions of interest in the design and development of supercritical CO2 power cycles.


Accomplishments