Energy Analysis

Assessment of the Distributed Generation Market Potential for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Date: 09/2013

            Contact: Katrina Krulla

NETL analyzed the strengths of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system in conjunction with distributed generation (DG) market segments in the U.S. and determined that natural gas compressor stations, grid strengthening, and data centers were potential early market-entry opportunities. These three DG market segments are projected to demand two gigawatts of additional power between now and 2018 and 25 GWs through 2040. This analysis showed that the DG SOFC system becomes cost competitive with other fossil-fuel based DG technologies after 25 MWe of installed capacity, around 2025. The SOFC DG application validates and enables utility scale fuel cell systems with carbon capture, and forms an essential first phase of the NETL technology development roadmap.


Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective Factsheet

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis provides insight into key criteria for the feasibility of seven types of energy technologies. The seven types of technologies include electricity from natural gas, co-firing of coal and biomass, nuclear fuel, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar thermal resources. The key criteria for evaluating these technologies are defined.


Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant Rev. 2

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Timothy Skone

Life Cycle Analysis of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plant. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Power Plant Presentation

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Timothy Skone

Life Cycle Analysis of a Natural Gas Combined Cycle plant. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Power Plant Final

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Timothy Skone

Life Cycle Analysis of a Natural Gas Combined Cycle plant. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Current and Future Technologies for Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Power Plants

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Walter Shelton

The purpose of this study is to present the cost and performance of natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants using state-of-the-art (SOA) and advanced gas turbines, both non-capture configurations and with post combustion carbon capture based on an advanced solvent process. The NGCC cases included in this study consist of four gas turbine designs: F-frame (GE 7FA.05), H-frame (based on Siemens H), advanced J-frame (based on MHI J), and a conceptual advanced future design (designated as X-frame). Each turbine is modeled in three process configurations: without CO2 capture, with CO2 capture, and with CO2 capture and exhaust gas recycle (EGR).


Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis provides insight into key criteria for the feasibility of seven types of energy technologies. The seven types of technologies include electricity from natural gas, co-firing of coal and biomass, nuclear fuel, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar thermal resources. The key criteria for evaluating these technologies are defined.


Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective Report

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis provides insight into key criteria for the feasibility of seven types of energy technologies. The seven types of technologies include electricity from natural gas, co-firing of coal and biomass, nuclear fuel, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar thermal resources. The key criteria for evaluating these technologies are defined.


Potential Impact of Improved Sensors, Controls on Coal-Fired Power Plant Forced Outages

Date: 03/2013

            Contact: Katrina Krulla

NETL is funding advanced sensors and control technologies research that has the potential to decrease the number of forced outage hours experienced by Coal-Fired Power Plants. Historically, a coal-fired unit is forced to shut down between 200 and 600 hours per year due to unexpected component failures or human errors. These forced outages represent a significant loss of revenue to the utility with an average sized unit losing $15-$20 Million per year. This paper examines the potential economic impact of improvements in unit availability due to advances in sensors and controls technology.


Advanced Sensors and Controls - Techno-Economic Analysis for Existing Coal Generating Units

Date: 03/2013

            Contact: Katrina Krulla

NETL collected data from previous coal-fired power plant sensor and control projects and used this data to establish cost and performance ranges to determine the economic opportunity for future advanced senor and control retrofits. Unit-level economic analyses were performed on coal-fired power plants in the U.S. by calculating the net present value (NPV) of cash flows that occur after the installation of new advanced sensor and control technologies in 2020. The results indicate that all 863 coal-fired units in the U.S. would meet a 24-month payback criterion assuming that availability and heat rate would improve consistent with prior senor and control projects.


Impact of Load Following on Power Plant Cost and Performance

Date: 10/2012

            Contact: James Black

This study performed a review of the public literature and interviewed industry experts to determine the impact on cost and performance of forcing fossil fuel power plants without and with carbon capture to load follow in response to changes in demand or output from renewable power generation sources. There is some information to quantify the impact of load following on NGCC and PC plants without capture, however there is little information either experimental data or theoretical analysis on the impact on IGCC, oxycombustion, or any plants with carbon capture from load following.


Updated Costs (June 2011 Basis) for Selected Bituminous Baseline Cases

Date: 10/2012

            Contact: James Black

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity (Nov 2010) establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants fueled with bituminous coal, pulverized coal (PC) plants fueled with bituminous coal, and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The cost basis for that report was June 2007. This present report updates the cost of selected cases from that report to June 2011 dollars. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.


NETL Upstream Dashboard Tool

Date: 08/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

The goal of the Upstream Tool is to allow the user to customize key parameters specific to their Life Cycle case study or desired scenario, and generate customized Upstream Emissions results quickly and simply.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Natural Gas Technology Assessment (Brief)

Date: 06/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This study discusses the role of natural gas power in meeting the energy needs of the United States (U.S.). This includes the identification of key issues related to natural gas and, where applicable, analyses of environmental and cost aspects of natural gas power.


Current and Future Technologies for Power Generation with Post-Combustion Carbon Capture

Date: 04/2012

            Contact: Robert Stevens

The objective of this study is to support DOE’s Carbon Capture and Advanced Combustion R&D Programs by completing an "R&D Pathway” study for PC power plants that employ post-combustion carbon capture. The pathway begins with representation of today's technology and extends to include emerging carbon capture, advanced steam conditions, and advanced CO2 compression with corresponding performance/cost estimates to illustrate routes to achieving the DOE goal of ≤ 35% increase in cost of electricity relative to a PC plant without CO2 capture.


QGESS: Process Modeling Design Parameters

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

The purpose of this section of the Quality Guidelines is to document the assumptions most commonly used in systems analysis studies and the basis for those assumptions. The large number of assumptions required for a thorough systems analysis make it impractical to document the entire set in each report. This document will serve as a comprehensive reference for these assumptions as well as their justification.


Research and Development Goals for CO2 Capture Technology

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

This document outlines the carbon capture goals set forth by DOE/NETL and provides a detailed breakdown and justification of their derivation.


QGESS: CO2 Impurity Design Parameters

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

This section of the Quality Guidelines provides recommended impurity limits for CO2 stream components for use in conceptual studies of CO2 carbon capture, utilization, and storage systems. These limits were developed from information consolidated from numerous studies and are presented by component. Impurity levels are provided for limitations of carbon steel pipelines, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), saline reservoir sequestration, and cosequestration of CO2 and H2S in saline reservoirs.


QGESS: Specifications for Selected Feedstocks

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

This document provides recommended specifications for various feedstocks that are commonly found in NETL-sponsored energy system studies. Adhering to these specifications should enhance the consistency of such studies. NETL recommends these guidelines be followed in the absence of any compelling market, project, or site-specific requirements in order to facilitate comparison of studies evaluating coal-based technologies.


QGESS: Technology Learning Curve (FOAK to NOAK)

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

This report summarizes costing methodologies employed by NETL for estimating future costs of mature commercial Nth-of-a-kind (NOAK) power plants from initial first-of-a-kind (FOAK) estimates for use in costing models and reports. It defines the specific steps and factors which can be used in such estimation calculations. The methodology within is based on knowledge of major plant component costs for various technologies.


Tracking New Coal-Fired Power Plants

Date: 01/2012

            Contact: Erik Shuster

This presentation provides an overview of proposed new coal-fired power plants that are under consideration. It focuses on those power plant development activities achieving significant progress toward completion, in order to more accurately assess the ability of this segment of the power generation industry to support adequate electricity capacity in various regions of the U.S.


Eliminating the Derate of Carbon Capture Retrofits

Date: 09/2011

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

Retrofitting existing PC plants with amine-based CO2 capture technology is thermally- and power-intensive. This study examines the benefit of installing a natural gas simple cycle to provide the auxiliaries required to operate the amine system such that the original power demand can still be met.


Cost and Performance of PC and IGCC Plants for a Range of Carbon Dioxide Capture

Date: 08/2011

            Contact: Kristen J. Gerdes

This study establishes the cost and performance for a range of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture levels for new supercritical pulverized coal and integrated gasification combined cycle power plants. Cost of avoiding CO2 emissions is calculated and utilized to find the optimum level of CO2 capture for each plant type.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 2: Coal to Synthetic Natural Gas and Ammonia

Date: 07/2011

            Contact: James Black

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants, Volume 2: Coal to Synthetic Natural Gas and Ammonia establishes performance and cost data for coal fueled plants producing synthetic natural gas and ammonia. The plants are based on a dry-feed entrained-flow gasifier and include cases using bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite coals. All configurations were studied with and without carbon sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions for plants starting operation in 2012. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.


Technical and Economic Analysis of Various Power Generation Resources Coupled with CAES Systems

Date: 06/2011

            Contact: Ryan Egidi

Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is an energy storage application with the potential to supplement intermittent power sources, such as wind and solar generators, and to enable better load following for more constant power sources such as coal combustion generators. To better understand CAES’s potential to provide practical energy storage for intermittent and constant-output power sources in the U.S., three practical considerations important to CAES planning and operations were analyzed: 1. Siting decisions 2. Development of optimal charge-discharge strategies 3. Design and operating factors that affect efficiency. These three analyses form the major sections of this study.


Thermal Plant Emissions Due to Intermittent Renewable Power Integration

Date: 05/2011

            Contact: Maria A. Hanley

Answering the question of whether operating one or more natural-gas turbines to firm variable wind or solar power would result in increased Nitrous oxide (NOx) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions compared to full-power steady-state operation of natural-gas turbines, the analysis demonstrates that CO2 emissions reductions are likely to be 75-80% of those presently assumed by policy makers. NOx reduction depends strongly on the type of NOx control and how it is dispatched. For the best system examined, using 20% renewable penetration, the NOx reductions are 30-50% of those expected; in the worst, emissions increased by 2-4 times the expected reductions.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 3a: Low Rank Coal to Electricity: IGCC Cases

Date: 05/2011

            Contact: James Black

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants Study, Volume 3a: Low Rank Coal to Electricity: IGCC Cases establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions. The study serves as a benchmark to track the progress of DOE Advanced Power Systems R&D and as a baseline for analyzing fossil energy plant options. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.


Life Cycle Analysis: Power Studies Compilation Report

Date: 01/2011

            Contact: Robert James

Presentation for life cycle analysis compilation of the power LCA reports. Develops an inventory of emissions results, and calculates life cycle costs for each plant with and without CCS.


Carbon Capture Approaches for Natural Gas Combined Cycle Systems

Date: 01/2011

            Contact: Walter Shelton

This study develops ASPEN PLUS simulation models and cost estimates for Natural Gas Combined Cycle plants with CO2 capture. Three approaches for carbon capture are examined: pre-combustion, post-combustion and oxy-combustion. In pre-combustion carbon capture, the carbon in the fuel is converted to CO2 and removed before the combustion process, whereas in post-combustion, the more dilute CO2 is separated from the flue gas at a lower pressure. Oxy-combustion technologies use nearly pure oxygen as the oxidant so that the flue gas consists primarily of CO2 and water vapor. Case results are compared with a reference plant based on an 7F frame combustion turbine.


Life Cycle Analysis: Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Power Plant

Date: 12/2010

            Contact: Robert James

Life Cycle Analysis of an NGCC plant. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity

Date: 11/2010

            Contact: James Black

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants Study, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle, pulverized coal, and natural gas combined cycle plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions. The study serves as a benchmark to track the progress of DOE Advanced Power Systems R&D and as a baseline for analyzing fossil energy plant options. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.


Current and Future Technologies for Gasification-Based Power Generation, Volume 2: Carbon Capture, Revision 1

Date: 10/2010

            Contact: Kristin J. Gerdes

The impact of a portfolio of advanced technologies in DOE's Clean Coal R&D Program were evaluated in gasification-based power plant configurations with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) resulting in power plants that are significantly more efficient and affordable than today's fossil energy technologies. In the IGCC process, the study estimates that a 7 percentage point efficiency improvement over conventional gasification technology is possible. With fuel cell technology, process efficiency improvements of 24 percentage points are potentially achievable. Furthermore, successful R&D for the advanced technologies evaluated results in capital costs and cost of electricity that is more than 30% below that of conventional IGCC technology with CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Power Studies Compilation Report

Date: 10/2010

            Contact: Robert James

Life cycle analysis compilation of the power LCA reports. Develops an inventory of emissions results, and calculates life cycle costs for each plant with and without CCS.


Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet Future Thermoelectric Generation Requirements

Date: 09/2010

            Contact: Erik Shuster

Future freshwater withdrawal and consumption from domestic thermoelectric generation sources were estimated for five cases, using AEO 2010 regional projections for capacity additions and retirements. Results demonstrate that carbon capture technologies could increase the water demand of thermoelectric power plants and indicate that consumption is expected to increase in all cases.


Life Cycle Analysis: Power Studies Compilation Report Presentation

Date: 09/2010

            Contact: Robert James

Presentation for life cycle analysis compilation of the Power LCA Reports. Develops an inventory of emissions results, and calculates life cycle costs for each plant with and without CCS.


Advanced Coal Power Market Penetration under Carbon Taxation

Date: 03/2010

            Contact: Katrina Krulla

This presentation provides an NETL exercise of the NEMS AEO2009 ARRA version to model benefits of advanced coal R&D.


A Presentation on Improving Coal Power Plant Efficiency as means for Reducing GHG Emissions given at the Great Plains Energy Expo, Nov. 2009

Date: 11/2009

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This presentation discusses NETL's evaluation of opportunities to improve coal-fired power plant efficiency as a way to provide near term greenhouse gas emission reductions, as presented at the Great Plains Energy Expo on November 9, 2009. It outlines analysis methods and anticipated benefits as well as identifies potential barriers, realistic targets and costs. North Dakota coal-fired power plants are also examined and compared.


The Potential of Advanced Technologies to Reduce IGCC Carbon Capture Costs

Date: 10/2009

            Contact: Kristin J. Gerdes

The impact of a portfolio of advanced technologies in DOE's Clean Coal R&D Program were evaluated in gasification-based power plant configurations with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) resulting in power plants that are significantly more efficient and affordable than today's fossil energy technologies. This was presented at the Oct 2009 Gasification Technologies Conference (GTC) and is a companion presentation to the final report, "Current and Future Technologies for Gasfication-Based Power Generation, Volume 2" (Nov 2009).


Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool

Date: 10/2009

            Contact: John G. Wimer

The Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool illustrates key data from the Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity report. The tool provides an interactive summary of the full report and serves as an electronic desk reference for quickly obtaining plant cost and performance data and for comparing and contrasting several technologies. Performance, emissions, and cost data presented include: net and gross output, heat rate, efficiency, water use, SO2, NOx, CO2, PM, and Hg emissions, total plant cost and levelized cost of electricity. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.


U.S. Capacity Margin Analysis Model

Date: 09/2009

            Contact: John G. Wimer

This interactive tool models U.S. electric capacity margins for eight NERC regions. Users can change the plant construction probability of currently proposed capacity and the availability of each fuel mix. User inputs are compared to NERC's 2008 capacity margin forecasts. This tool can be used to look at various "what if" scenarios.


U.S. Electricity Market View Interactive Tool

Date: 09/2009

            Contact: John G. Wimer

This interactive tool shows U.S. electric capacity and generation by prime mover and primary fuel categories for each of the ten NERC regions.


Electricity Reliability Impacts of a Mandatory Cooling Tower Rule for Existing Steam Generation Units

Date: 10/2008

            Contact:

DOE provided the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) with a list of steam generation units that would be required to retrofit with cooling towers. DOE requested NERC to model the reliability impacts of the cooling tower mandate using certain assumptions. In its white paper, NERC concludes that once the deadline for the cooling tower retrofits has passed, the generation losses resulting from the requirement would exacerbate a potential decline in electric generation reserve margins that are needed to ensure reliable delivery of electricity. Nuclear plants would be particularly impacted by a cooling tower mandate.


Advanced Syngas Conversion Technologies COE Tool Documentation

Date: 06/2008

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This document describes the methodology for development of the IGFC COE spreadsheet tool.


Advanced Syngas Conversion Technologies COE Tool

Date: 06/2008

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This spreadsheet calculates the levelized cost of electricity for fuel cell systems that are integrated with gasification; costs are scaled from recent NETL coal-based power plant cost estimates.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants: Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity

Date: 05/2007

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

This reference contains brief summaries of each of the 12 power plant configurations that were analyzed in Volume 1 of the Cost and Performance Baseline Study, an independent assessment of the cost and performance of fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), pulverized coal (PC), and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.


Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Coal Gasification Power Generation Systems

Date: 09/2004

            Contact: Peter Balash

The research in this study conducts Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) of coal gasification-based electricity generation technologies for emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Two approaches for computing LCAs are compared for construction and operation of integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants: a traditional process-based approach, and one based on economic input-output analysis named Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA). The efficiency of these two methods is reviewed under specific scenarios.


An Assessment of a Hydrogen Cities Concept Applied to a Representative Community

Date: 07/2004

            Contact: John G. Wimer

This report presents a study on SOFC-based DG plant configurations. The performance of each plant configuration was analyzed, considering first a simple-cycle SOFC and comparing these results to a gas turbine hybrid with SOFC. Issues pertaining to siting, waste heat utilization, and improve costs and efficiency are also reviewed. The performance model uses an hour-by-hour analysis to estimate Overall Cost of Electricity (COE), energy savings, and emissions impacts.