Energy Analysis

CO2-EOR Offshore Resource Assessment

Date: 06/2014

            Contact: Evelyn Dale

The Gulf of Mexico accounts for about 20 percent of total domestic crude oil production.  Since reaching a peak of 1.54 million barrels a day in 2003, Gulf of Mexico’s OCS oil production has declined to 1.23 MMB/D, as of mid-2013.  While there is optimism that new discoveries in the deep and ultra-deep waters of the GOM OCS will reverse this decline, another option seems to offer even more promise -- the application of CO2 enhanced oil recovery.


Near-Term Projections of CO2 Utilization for Enhanced Oil Recovery

Date: 04/2014

            Contact: Chris Nichols

In 2013 a total of 113 CO2-EOR projects inject 3.1 billion cubic feet per day (Bcfd) (60 million metric tons (MMmt) per year) of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery in the United States.  The associated crude oil production in 2012 was 282,000 barrels per day.  Based on the increased volumes of CO2 supplies, the completion of major CO2 pipelines, and the announced new, large-scale CO2-EOR floods, production of crude oil from CO2-EOR floods is forecast to grow significantly, reaching 615,000 barrels per day from at least 124 active CO2 floods by year 2020.  While the Permian Basin remains the largest CO2-EOR oil producer, much of the growth occurs in the Gulf Coast, the Rockies, and the Mid-Continent.


Next Generation CO2 EOR

Date: 03/2014

            Contact: Chris Nichols

Presentation slide deck from the CO2 Utilization Congress.  Draws on recent NETL analyses and other sources to present: (1) a primer on CO2 EOR, (2) an overview of the current status of CO2 EOR in North America, (3) a description of next generation CO2 EOR technology, and (4) an estimate of the size of the resource in the United States.


Subsurface Sources of CO2 in the Contiguous United States. Volume 1: Discovered Reservoirs

Date: 03/2014

            Contact: Chris Nichols

Twenty-one CO2 fields in the contiguous states contain an estimated 311 Tcf of CO2 gas-initially-in-place (GIIP).  Of that, 168 Tcf (54 percent) is estimated to be accessible and technically recoverable.  The estimated economically recoverable resource (ERR) is 96.4 Tcf, based on a CO2 price of 1.06 $/mcf ($20/tonne) at the field gate.  Cumulative production to date is 18.9 Tcf, leaving 77.5 Tcf remaining or net ERR.  The Big Piney-LaBarge field in Wyoming contains an estimated net ERR of 52 Tcf, 67 percent of the total for the United States.  The remaining ERR in reservoirs that feed into the Permian Basin and Gulf Coast is on the order of 10-20 years of supply.


Subsurface Sources of CO2 in the United States. Volume II: Exploration of CO2 Systems

Date: 03/2014

            Contact: Chris Nichols

A study of the genesis and tectonic setting of subsurface CO2 systems in the United States indicates that undiscovered CO2 reservoirs could contribute materially to CO2 supply for enhanced oil recovery.  Five geographic areas are estimated to contain 42 Tcf of risked technically recoverable CO2 resource (TRR).   Two lead areas near the Permian Basin, Val Verde and San Juan, contain 34 Tcf CO2 risked TRR, an amount roughly equivalent to the remaining TRR in discovered reservoirs that are currently supplying the region.  The number of lead areas studied was limited and the aggregate TRR estimates are not comprehensive.


Understanding the Life Cycle Environmental Footprint of the Natural Gas Value Chain

Date: 02/2014

            Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This is a presentation given to the North Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC), Gas Subcommittee meeting on February 9, 2014. The agenda includes the importance of understanding methane emissions from the natural gas sector, the Department of Energy Office's role in reducing methane emissions from the natural gas value chain, a primer on life cycle analysis, and understanding the life cycle environmental footprint of the natural gas value chain.


LCA and the U.S. Natural Gas Resource

Date: 12/2013

            Contact: Timothy J. Skone

From a life cycle perspective, baseload power is NETL's preferred basis for comparing energy sources. For fossil energy systems, the emissions from power plants account for the majority of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, focusing on the activities that precede the power plant is still necessary in order to identify near-term opportunities for GHG emission reductions. NETL's upstream natural gas model allows detailed modeling of the extraction, processing, and pipeline transmission of natural gas. This model can identify key contributors to the GHG emissions from the natural gas supply chain, and has parameters that can be used to assess opportunities for reducing GHG emissions. The model shows that current domestic natural gas extraction, processing, and pipeline technologies leak 1.2% of the methane that is extracted at the wellhead. Improved practices, such as those in the latest New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), can reduce this upstream methane leakage rate. From a life cycle perspective (1 MWh of delivered electricity), power production from natural gas has lower GHG emissions than power produced from coal. There are several methods and technology combinations that can be used for determining how high the upstream natural gas methane leakage rate has to be in order for the life cycle GHG emissions from natural gas power to equal those from coal power. Ongoing research is developing data that will improve the accuracy of NETL's upstream natural gas model.


Energy Related Flow Diagrams

Date: 12/2013

            Contact: Erik Shuster

This document contains several energy related flow diagrams (Sankey diagrams). For a Sankey diagram, the width of the arrows is proportional to the flow quantity. The following energy related diagrams included in the document are: U.S. energy use, international oil flows, international and domestic coal import/exports, and international natural gas flows.


An In-Depth Look at "Next Generation" CO2 EOR Technology

Date: 09/2013

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This analysis takes a more in-depth look at the "Next Generation" CO2-EOR concept and defines distinct areas of technology development that comprise it. The CO2-PROPHET model is used to simulate the application of the four main "Next Generation" technologies to a database of 1,824 Lower-48 onshore oil reservoirs, first applied singularly and then in combination. The simulations indicate significant synergy when the technology areas are applied jointly. The results show that "Next Generation" CO2 EOR can provide positive impacts – 2 MMbpd of domestic oil production for 50 years - but it is not free. "Next Generation" CO2-EOR designs require capital outlays two times higher than current best practices.


CO2 STORAGE AND UTILIZATION NEAR MINGO COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA

Date: 09/2013

            Contact: DiPietro, Phil

Six oil fields within 100 miles of the planned coal-to-liquids facility in Mingo County were found to be prospective for miscible CO2-EOR. Four of the oil fields fall along a straight line and could, in concept, be developed sequentially along a single CO2 pipeline. The total demand for purchased CO2 from these four fields is estimated to be 47 million metric tons (890 Bcf) over 20 years. Four saline formations within Mingo County could accommodate 50 million metric tons of CO2 (accounts for uncertainty and a &"buffer zone”). The combined storage capacity – EOR within 100 miles of Mingo County and saline within Mingo County – can accommodate 3 million metric tons per year of vented CO2 for over 30 years Conclusion: there is enough potential for CO2 utilization and storage that a next level of study is a reasonable course.


Estimated U.S. Energy Use in 2012: Contributions from Fossil, Nuclear, and Renewable Energy

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Erik Shuster

A diagram of major energy sources for each sector of the U.S. economy depicted as flows in a Sankey diagram. Proportions of fossil, nuclear, and renewable energy provided for electricity generation and ultimately used by the residential, industrial, commercial, and transportation sectors of the economy are shown. This diagram rearranges and segregates information originally published by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, based on data from the Energy Information Administration's Monthly Energy Review, May 2013.


A Forecast of Crude Oil Production from Carbon Dioxide Enhanced Oil Recovery in the United States through 2018

Date: 03/2013

            Contact: Chris Nichols

CO2 supply for enhanced oil recovery operations in the United States is expected to increase 64% between 2012 and 2018, from 3.3 BCFd to 5.4 BCFd. The CO2 utilization rate (URNet the amount of CO2 supplied per incremental barrel of crude oil produced) can be used to estimate crude oil production based on CO2 supply rate. Based on compiled historical data we estimate the following regional CO2 Utilization rates: Permian basin, 8,500 scf/bbl, Rocky mountain, 8,000 scf/bbl, Gulf Coast, 25,000 scf/bbl. Applying these rates to the regional forecast for CO2 supply we forecast production from CO2 EOR in the United States in 2018 will be 500,000 bpd.


North American CO2 Supply and Developments

Date: 01/2013

            Contact: Chris Nichols

In 2013 carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2 EOR) operations in North America purchased 3.4 billion standard cubic feet of CO2 and produced 318,000 barrels per day of crude oil.  The average CO2 utilization rate was 9,200 scf/bbl in the Permian Basin, 8,800 scf/bbl in the Rocky Mountain region and 26,000 scf/bbl in the Gulf Coast region.  Based on expected regional growth in CO2 supply and expected trends in average CO2 utilization rates, crude oil production from CO2 EOR in North America is forecast to be 590,000 bpd in 2018.


NETL Upstream Dashboard Tool

Date: 08/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

The goal of the Upstream Tool is to allow the user to customize key parameters specific to their Life Cycle case study or desired scenario, and generate customized Upstream Emissions results quickly and simply.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Natural Gas Technology Assessment

Date: 06/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This study discusses the role of natural gas power in meeting the energy needs of the United States (U.S.). This includes the identification of key issues related to natural gas and, where applicable, analyses of environmental and cost aspects of natural gas power.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Natural Gas Technology Assessment (Brief)

Date: 06/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This study discusses the role of natural gas power in meeting the energy needs of the United States (U.S.). This includes the identification of key issues related to natural gas and, where applicable, analyses of environmental and cost aspects of natural gas power.


A Note on Sources of CO2 Supply for Enhanced Oil Recovery Operations

Date: 04/2012

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This paper presents compiled information on sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations in the United States. CO2 supply in 2010 was 58 MtCO2. Production from natural sources accounted for 85% of the 2010 CO2 supply. Natural gas processing accounted for 13% of 2010 supply. The forecast rate of CO2 supply in 2015 is 93 MtCO2/yr, a 60% increase over the 2010 level. Hydrocarbon conversion facilities with CO2 capture account for 36% of the projected growth between 2010 and 2015. NOTE: By clicking the link below, you will be directed to a non-government website.


Life Cycle Assessment of Natural Gas Extraction, Delivery and Electricity Production - NAS/TRB Conference Presentation

Date: 01/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

NETL reports natural gas fired power production GHG emissions to be 53% lower average base load coal fired power production at National Academy of Sciences, 91st Annual Transportation Research Board Meeting in Washington, D.C. on January 25. The presentation provides an overview of NETL's greenhouse gas results for various types of natural gas, including Marcellus Shale, and compares the results for natural gas fired power production to coal fired power production. The presentation focused on understanding the variability and uncertainty in recent natural gas GHG estimates.


Estimated U.S. Energy Use in 2010: Contributions from Fossil, Nuclear, and Renewable Energy

Date: 12/2011

            Contact: Ken Kern

A diagram of major energy sources for each sector of the U.S. economy depicted as flows in a Sankey diagram. Proportions of fossil, nuclear, and renewable energy provided for electricity generation and ultimately used by the residential, industrial, commercial, and transportation sectors of the economy are shown. This diagram rearranges and segregates information originally published by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, based on data from the Energy Information Administration's Annual Energy Review, 2010.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Natural Gas Extraction, Delivery and Electricity Production - Presentation

Date: 10/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

Presentation details the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from six domestic sources of natural gas and a national average mix for extraction and delivery to a large end user. The report also compares the use of natural gas for power production to coal-fired power production based on the delivery of 1 MWh of electricity to the end user. Results demonstrate that natural gas-fired baseload power production has life cycle GHG emissions 42 to 53 percent lower than those for coal-fired baseload electricity, after accounting for a wide range of variability and compared across different assumptions of climate impact timing.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Natural Gas Extraction, Delivery and Electricity Production

Date: 10/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

Report details the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from six domestic sources of natural gas and a national average mix for extraction and delivery to a large end user. The report also compares the use of natural gas for power production to coal-fired power production based on the delivery of 1 MWh of electricity to the end user. Results demonstrate that natural gas-fired baseload power production has life cycle GHG emissions 42 to 53 percent lower than those for coal-fired baseload electricity, after accounting for a wide range of variability and compared across different assumptions of climate impact timing.


Improving Domestic Energy Security and Lowering CO2 Emissions with “Next Generation” CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR)

Date: 06/2011

            Contact: Chris Nichols

NETL has revised its national resource assessment for carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2 EOR). Under a current technology scenario, 1,200 reservoirs in the lower 48 states are amenable to CO2 EOR. At an assumed crude oil market price of $85 per barrel, these reservoirs represent 24 billion barrels of economic reserves. Under a next generation scenario the economic supply from CO2 EOR increases to 60 billion barrels. The resource assessment unveils a strong dependence on CO2 capture technology, as the equivalent of 60 - 90 GW of coal-fired plants with 90% capture will be needed to supply EOR floods.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Natural Gas Extraction & Delivery in the United States

Date: 05/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

On May 12, 2011 NETL provided the following presentation at the Cornell University lecture series on unconventional natural gas development. The presentation summarizes the life cycle analysis (LCA) greenhouse gas (GHG) research on natural gas extraction and delivery in the United States (on a lb CO2e/MMBtu basis) and a comparison of the life cycle GHG profiles of average natural gas and coal-fired power production and delivery to an end-user (lb CO2e/MWh basis). Specifically, the presentation details seven natural gas profiles: onshore conventional gas, associated gas, offshore gas, tight sands (gas), shale gas (based on Barnett Shale), coal bed methane gas, and the year 2009 domestic average mix. Each natural gas source is upgraded in a gas processing plant, compressed, and delivered to a large end-user (e.g., power plant).


A Comparative Assessment of CO2 Sequestration through Enhanced Oil Recovery and Saline Aquifer Sequestration

Date: 01/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

A comparative assessment of CO2 sequestration through enhanced oil recovery and saline aquifer sequestration.


An Assessment of Gate-to-Gate Environmental Life Cycle Performance of Water-Alternating-Gas CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery in the Permian Basin

Date: 09/2010

            Contact: Robert Dilmore

CO2-enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) stimulates oil production while storing a portion of the injected CO2. Life cycle assessment was performed for three CO2-EOR scenarios to estimate the "gate-to-gate" greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with water-alternating-gas injection in a typical Permian Basin reservoir. Current CO2-EOR "best practices" generate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of 71 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2E) per barrel of oil extracted - approximately three times greater than GHG emissions for the average barrel of domestic oil extracted in 2005.


Storing CO2 and Producing Domestic Crude Oil with Next Generation CO2-EOR Technology: An Update

Date: 04/2010

            Contact: Donald Remson

This study provides an update of the January, 2009 report, which examined and quantified the benefits of integrating CO2 storage with next generation enhanced oil recovery practices. The same analysis is repeated using updated data for the state of Alaska and the Offshore Gulf of Mexico. In this report, four next generation CO2 EOR technology options are identified and described, and the potential additional amounts of oil recovered and CO2 stored by using these technologies are quantified.


NETL Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005 Baseline Model

Date: 11/2009

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This model calculates the 2005 national average life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for petroleum-based fuels sold or distributed in the United States in the year 2005. Specifically, the model reports, by life cycle stage, the life cycle GHG emissions for conventional gasoline, conventional diesel fuel, and kerosene-based jet fuel. The model served as the primary calculation tool for the results reported in the NETL November 26, 2008, report entitled "Development of Baseline Data and Analysis of Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Petroleum-Based Fuels". The model was created in Microsoft Office Excel 2003 and requires macros to be enabled to solve iterative calculation functions.


A Presentation on CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery given to the China National Petroleum Corporation, October 2009

Date: 10/2009

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This presentation discusses NETL's assessment of opportunities to use carbon dioxide to enhance oil recovery in the United States, as presented at the China National Petroleum Corporation workshop on CO2 EOR and Storage in Beijing, China on October 26, 2009. It discusses efforts to quantify the amount of crude oil amenable to CO2 EOR, estimates CO2 sequestration levels, and identifies current modeling efforts as well as outlines economic and environmental benefits. Basin-level data, analysis methods and recovery estimates are also presented.


Balancing Climate Change, Energy Security, and Economic Sustainability: A Life Cycle Comparison of Diesel Fuel from Crude Oil and Domestic Coal and Biomass Resources

Date: 04/2009

            Contact: Chris Nichols

Brief 4-page summary of the near-term benefits of co-gasifying U.S. coal and biomass resources to produce FT diesel; a domestic transportation fuel. The paper summarizes the climate change, energy security, and economic benefits when compared to conventional diesel fuel production from domestic and imported crude oil.


An Evaluation of the Extraction, Transport and Refining of Imported Crude Oils and the Impact on Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Date: 03/2009

            Contact: Chris Nichols

NETL has analyzed the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel) derived from domestic crude oil and crude oil imported from specific countries. The analysis reveals that producing diesel from imported crude oil results in well-to-tank GHG emissions that are, on average, 59% higher than from domestic crude oil. Imported crude oils are on average heavier and contain higher levels of sulfur and the controls on venting and flaring during crude oil production are not as good as in domestic operations. This report provides detailed methodology and results for this analysis.


Consideration of Crude Oil Source in Evaluating Transportation Fuel GHG Emissions

Date: 03/2009

            Contact: Chris Nichols

NETL has analyzed the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel) for the baseline year 2005. Further analysis reveals that producing diesel from imported crude oil results in well-to-tank GHG emissions that are, on average, 59% higher than from domestic crude oil. Imported crude oils are on average heavier and contain higher levels of sulfur and the controls on venting and flaring during crude oil production are not as good as in domestic operations. This report provides a brief summary of methodology and results of these two analyses.


NETL's Capability to Compare Transportation Fuels: GHG Emissions and Energy Security Impacts

Date: 02/2009

            Contact: Chris Nichols

Describes the methodology behind the well-to-tank greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions estimate for U.S. petroleum diesel of 18.4 kg CO2E/MMBtu fuel delivered to the vehicle, lower heating value (LHV) basis. This is the average for the United States in 2005. Presents additional analysis that reveals that producing diesel from imported crude oil results in well-to-tank GHG emissions that are, on average, 59% higher than from domestic crude oil.


Electricity Use of Enhanced Oil Recovery with Carbon Dioxide

Date: 01/2009

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This report examines the electricity requirements of carbon-dioxide enhanced oil recovery technology and provides a range of estimates, expressed in kWh of electricity consumed per Bbl of incremental oil produced.


EPACT Project: Valuing Domestically Produced Natural Gas and Oil

Date: 12/2008

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This document describes the methodology for development of the Economic Impact of Oil and Gas Production spreadsheet tool.


Economic Impacts of Increased Domestic Oil and Gas Production

Date: 12/2008

            Contact: Chris Nichols

Spreadsheet based tool uses input output modeling methods to estimate the regional and national economic impacts of domestic production of crude oil and natural gas versus imports. Assesses the application of advanced exploration and technology to the Marcellus Shale, the Bakken Shale, the Barnett Shale and other plays of interest.


Multi-Seam Well Completion Technology Implications for Powder River Basin Coalbed Methane Production: 2008 Update

Date: 10/2008

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This study shows that MSC Technology can appreciably improve the outlook for CBM development in the Powder River Basin, by improving reserves-per-well and reducing environmental impact. The challenge is to capture the lessons learned from successes, treat new wells / reservoirs as unique and to utilize different completion technologies as needed, such as slotted liners, to maximize success.


Natural Gas and Electricity Costs and Impacts on Industry

Date: 04/2008

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This study reviews the trends in historical natural gas and electricity prices. The document identifies key factors that are contributing to the increase in historical natural gas prices, while also discussing the subsequent effects on energy industry production and development. The impact of climate change legislation is also reviewed relevant to the future of base load power reliability and consumer electricity prices.


Storing CO2 with Enhanced Oil Recovery

Date: 02/2008

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This study examines and quantifies the benefits of integrating CO2 storage with enhanced oil recovery (EOR). It also estimates the size of the U.S. CO2 market available from enhanced oil recovery and how this market could support early market entry of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS technology).


Attaining Energy Security in Liquid Fuels Through Diverse U.S. Energy Alternatives

Date: 09/2007

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This analysis posits the existence of a third, moderate-import position option that would enable the United States to achieve a much higher level of energy self-sufficiency without total market withdrawal. This middle ground is referred to as "advantageous interdependence." This analysis does not make specific recommendations for policy in support of any domestic energy alternatives or make budget recommendations for the research and development necessary to develop their associated technologies. Rather it presents the available alternative decision pathways and discusses the implications that analysis of each outcome implies.


Improving Water Management

Date: 03/2007

            Contact: Chris Nichols

In this report, a Frequency Domain Airborne Electromagnetic (AEM) survey in the Powder River Basin was completed as part of a hydrologic study of coal bed natural gas production. The intent of this survey was to evaluate AEM for large-scale mapping of vadose-zone electrical conductivity and water quality variation within shallow aquifers to evaluate the effects of produced water disposal. See report.


Peaking of World Oil Production: Recent Forecasts

Date: 02/2007

            Contact: Chris Nichols

The purpose of this report is to summarize forecasts for the peaking of world oil production, with emphasis on forecasts that have been publicly noted since 2005. The report includes background on peak oil and the factors that have historically made forecasting difficult. Also, the report reviews recent studies that have enhanced forecasting methodology and improved the robustness of forecast results.


Economic Impacts of U.S. Liquid Fuel Mitigation Options

Date: 07/2006

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This study assesses the economic implications of simultaneous crashes in the supply and demand sides of the economy; emulating a rapid reduction of U.S. dependence on imported oil. The report identifies the infrastructure needed to conduct this undertaking, and considers four options to mitigate dependence on imported oil: Vehicle fuel efficiency (VFE), Coal liquefaction (coal-to-liquids or CTL), Oil shale, and Enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The results of this study summarize what can be accomplished under optimal circumstances.


International Carbon Capture and Storage Projects Overcoming Legal Barriers

Date: 07/2006

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This document examines regulatory developments of major CCS projects to determine progress in regulation. Five case studies of CCS projects are examined, including enhanced resource recovery and direct storage options at various development stages. The focus of this report is the legal and regulatory context for international projects, although field projects in the U.S. are also addressed.


Have We Run Out of Oil Yet? Oil Peaking Analysis from an Optimist's Perspective

Date: 12/2005

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This study addresses concerns on the peaking of conventional oil production. These issues are explored using a model combining alternative world energy scenarios with an accounting of resource depletion and a market-based simulation of transition to unconventional oil resources. The model assesses the timing and rate of transition from conventional to unconventional oil resources. Results indicate a high probability of peaking or constrained conventional oil production before 2025.


Addressing the Critical Link Between Fossil Energy and Water

Date: 10/2005

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This paper discusses the demand for water from the fossil energy sector. In addition to demand, some resource acquisition practices may contribute to adverse water impacts and contamination. This paper summarizes the current water-related RD&D activities currently sponsored by DOE/FE and implemented by NETL in the areas of fossil-fuel-based thermoelectric power generation, coal mining, and oil and natural gas production.


Marginal Wells: Contribution to Future Supply

Date: 09/2005

            Contact: Chris Nichols

A factsheet reviewing the contributions of marginal or stripper wells in response to U.S. crude oil and natural gas demand. Marginal natural gas wells produce 60 thousand cubic feet per day (Mcf/d) or less. Yet, marginal wells accounted for about 11% of natural gas production in the contiguous states, and the analysis of this review indicates that the volume will continue to increase.


Liquefied Natural Gas: Understanding the Basic Facts

Date: 08/2005

            Contact:

This document reports on the current status of domestic natural gas production and imports as they related to rising demands. The document discusses how the existing infrastructure can handle projected capacity needs and presents discussions on improving a global LNG market system to meet the expected demands.


Natural Gas Resources and Federal Lands

Date: 07/2005

            Contact: Chris Nichols

A factsheet summarizing the extent to which natural gas sources are located within federal land boundaries. This paper discusses the role of the Bureau of Land Management to manage these natural resources for recreational, conservation, and resource consumption. Finally, the access restrictions relevant to extracting and utilizing natural resources on federal lands is presented.


A Forecast of Marginal Natural Gas and Oil Well Data

Date: 06/2005

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This document presents the methodology and results of an analysis conducted by Northrop Grumman Mission Systems for the Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO) of the U.S Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The goal of this analysis was to develop a forecast of marginal oil and natural gas production and well counts through the year 2025.


The Need for Effective and Forthright Communication Planning for LNG Facility Sitting: A Checklist for State Public Utility Commissions

Date: 06/2005

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This document aims to familiarize state regulatory commissions and other federal and state policy-makers with the activities LNG developers should take in the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) pre-filing period for certification of proposed LNG terminals.


Liquefied Natural Gas: An Overview of the Issues for State Public Utility Commissions

Date: 06/2005

            Contact:

This white paper presents an overview of the major issues related to the import and use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a reliable energy source. The report focuses on the modes of maintaining a strong LNG supply, including: The Role of Public Utility Commissions, Regional Issues, Economics and Contracting, and Environmental Impacts. The report concludes by suggesting guidelines for state PUCs considering LNG expansion.


The Top Ten Most-Asked Questions and How to Answer Them

Date: 05/2005

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This presentation reviews the top questions relevant to carbon dioxide emissions, enhanced oil recovery, and carbon capture and sequestration. The purpose of this presentation is to open discussion on DOE strategies to reducing greenhouse gas emissions through a portfolio of programs and alternatives.


Produced Water from Oil and Natural Gas Operations

Date: 03/2005

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This factsheet summarizes the management concerns and environmental impacts of produced water sources from oil and natural gas operations.


Oil Shale Development in the United States, Prospects and Policy Issues

Date: 02/2005

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This report presents an updated assessment of the viability of oil shale resources in the United States. The report describes the oil shale resources in the western United States and examines the suitability, cost, and performance of available technologies for developing these resources. Other topics include energy, environmental, land-use, and socio-economic policy issues that must be addressed by government decision makers in the future.


Coalbed Natural Gas Coalbed Methane

Date: 02/2005

            Contact: Chris Nichols

A factsheet discussing the increasing role of coalbed methane or "CBM" as part of the national energy portfolio. CBM production has increased during the last 15 years and now accounts for about 1/12th of the U.S. natural gas production. The document also summarizes potential development issues in utilizing the resource.


Carbon Sequestration Role in State and Local Actions

Date: 01/2005

            Contact: Chris Nichols

The purpose of this report is to summarize existing carbon sequestration activities at the state level to inform decision makers, planners, and others who may be interested in the progress of carbon sequestration development in the United States.


Polygeneration of SNG, Hydrogen, Power, and Carbon Dioxide from Texas Lignite

Date: 12/2004

            Contact: John G. Wimer

The intent of this study is to investigate the feasibility of siting a lignite conversion plant in Texas at the mine mouth of the Wilcox lignite deposit. The concept is to coproduce at least three products: electric power, hydrogen or substitute natural gas (SNG), and carbon dioxide. The electric power would be sold to the grid, the hydrogen would be sent by pipeline to the Gulf Coast petroleum refineries, the SNG would be sold as a natural gas supplement, and the carbon dioxide would be pipelined to the West Texas oil fields for enhanced oil recovery.


BLM Safety Net Royalty Relief Analysis of Natural Gas and Oil Production and Public Sector Revenues for United States Onshore Federal Lands

Date: 08/2004

            Contact: Chris Nichols

A study to evaluate the costs and benefits of proposed royalty relief scenarios on Federal oil and gas leases. Key findings demonstrate that existing royalty relief is not cost-effective at current prices. Similarly, incremental production due to safety net royalty relief proposals is relatively small and gas production is not nearly as sensitive as oil production to lower prices in the study range.


South-Central Alaska Natural Gas Study

Date: 06/2004

            Contact: Chris Nichols

The purpose of this investigation is to identify and evaluate the options that will meet south-central Alaska's natural gas demand and provide for economic growth. The opportunities for ensuring adequate future supply of natural gas include: Development of additional gas reserves in existing Cook Inlet fields, exploration and development of new gas fields in the Cook Inlet Basin, and development of a spur pipeline to bring Alaska North Slope gas to the region. Each of these options is assessed for feasibility.


Arctic National Wildlife Refuge ANWR

Date: 05/2004

            Contact: John G. Wimer

This factsheet discusses the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) as a source of natural resources for domestic needs and the contrasting concerns of preserving the natural state of the environment.


Delivering Alaskan North Slope Gas to Market

Date: 04/2004

            Contact: Chris Nichols

A factsheet reviewing how increased demand has renewed interest in a transportation infrastructure for the Alaskan North Shore (ANS) natural gas resource. The document reviews current progress to develop the ANS infrastructure and reviews the steps necessary to achieve these proposed pipeline expansion goals in the future.


Review of Non-Technical Issues Related to Commercial Methane Hydrate Production: Final Report

Date: 03/2004

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This report identifies and analyzes operational, environmental or policy issues that could impact the commercial production of methane hydrates as an unconventional source of natural gas. The report itemizes potential barriers and proposes methods to facilitate commercialization of methane hydrate supplies.