Energy Analysis

CO2-EOR Offshore Resource Assessment

Date: 06/2014

            Contact: Evelyn Dale

The Gulf of Mexico accounts for about 20 percent of total domestic crude oil production.  Since reaching a peak of 1.54 million barrels a day in 2003, Gulf of Mexico’s OCS oil production has declined to 1.23 MMB/D, as of mid-2013.  While there is optimism that new discoveries in the deep and ultra-deep waters of the GOM OCS will reverse this decline, another option seems to offer even more promise -- the application of CO2 enhanced oil recovery.


Near-Term Projections of CO2 Utilization for Enhanced Oil Recovery

Date: 04/2014

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

In 2013 a total of 113 CO2-EOR projects inject 3.1 billion cubic feet per day (Bcfd) (60 million metric tons (MMmt) per year) of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery in the United States.  The associated crude oil production in 2012 was 282,000 barrels per day.  Based on the increased volumes of CO2 supplies, the completion of major CO2 pipelines, and the announced new, large-scale CO2-EOR floods, production of crude oil from CO2-EOR floods is forecast to grow significantly, reaching 615,000 barrels per day from at least 124 active CO2 floods by year 2020.  While the Permian Basin remains the largest CO2-EOR oil producer, much of the growth occurs in the Gulf Coast, the Rockies, and the Mid-Continent.


Next Generation CO2 EOR

Date: 03/2014

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

Presentation slide deck from the CO2 Utilization Congress.  Draws on recent NETL analyses and other sources to present: (1) a primer on CO2 EOR, (2) an overview of the current status of CO2 EOR in North America, (3) a description of next generation CO2 EOR technology, and (4) an estimate of the size of the resource in the United States.


Subsurface Sources of CO2 in the Contiguous United States. Volume 1: Discovered Reservoirs

Date: 03/2014

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

Twenty-one CO2 fields in the contiguous states contain an estimated 311 Tcf of CO2 gas-initially-in-place (GIIP).  Of that, 168 Tcf (54 percent) is estimated to be accessible and technically recoverable.  The estimated economically recoverable resource (ERR) is 96.4 Tcf, based on a CO2 price of 1.06 $/mcf ($20/tonne) at the field gate.  Cumulative production to date is 18.9 Tcf, leaving 77.5 Tcf remaining or net ERR.  The Big Piney-LaBarge field in Wyoming contains an estimated net ERR of 52 Tcf, 67 percent of the total for the United States.  The remaining ERR in reservoirs that feed into the Permian Basin and Gulf Coast is on the order of 10-20 years of supply.


Subsurface Sources of CO2 in the United States. Volume II: Exploration of CO2 Systems

Date: 03/2014

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

A study of the genesis and tectonic setting of subsurface CO2 systems in the United States indicates that undiscovered CO2 reservoirs could contribute materially to CO2 supply for enhanced oil recovery.  Five geographic areas are estimated to contain 42 Tcf of risked technically recoverable CO2 resource (TRR).   Two lead areas near the Permian Basin, Val Verde and San Juan, contain 34 Tcf CO2 risked TRR, an amount roughly equivalent to the remaining TRR in discovered reservoirs that are currently supplying the region.  The number of lead areas studied was limited and the aggregate TRR estimates are not comprehensive.


CO2 Storage: A lecture presented at Carnegie Mellon University

Date: 02/2014

            Contact: Tim Grant

This power-point presentation provides a basic introduction to storage of captured CO2, modeling parameters driving costs modeled by the FE/NETL CO2 Saline Storage Cost Model, associated Class VI regulations and supporting illustrations from some Class VI permit applications.


Cost and Performance Metrics Used to Assess Carbon Utilization and Storage Technologies

Date: 02/2014

            Contact: James Black

The report presents a diverse set of twelve metrics grouped under the subheadings of performance, cost, emissions, market, and safety that have been developed for use in comparing and/or screening CO2 utilization projects and technologies.  Utilization technologies could involve the chemical conversion of CO2 into valued products such as polycarbonate plastics, or the integration of CO2 into products such as cement or concrete.


Assessment of the Distributed Generation Market Potential for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Date: 09/2013

            Contact: Katrina Krulla

NETL analyzed the strengths of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system in conjunction with distributed generation (DG) market segments in the U.S. and determined that natural gas compressor stations, grid strengthening, and data centers were potential early market-entry opportunities. These three DG market segments are projected to demand two gigawatts of additional power between now and 2018 and 25 GWs through 2040. This analysis showed that the DG SOFC system becomes cost competitive with other fossil-fuel based DG technologies after 25 MWe of installed capacity, around 2025. The SOFC DG application validates and enables utility scale fuel cell systems with carbon capture, and forms an essential first phase of the NETL technology development roadmap.


An In-Depth Look at "Next Generation" CO2 EOR Technology

Date: 09/2013

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This analysis takes a more in-depth look at the "Next Generation" CO2-EOR concept and defines distinct areas of technology development that comprise it. The CO2-PROPHET model is used to simulate the application of the four main "Next Generation" technologies to a database of 1,824 Lower-48 onshore oil reservoirs, first applied singularly and then in combination. The simulations indicate significant synergy when the technology areas are applied jointly. The results show that "Next Generation" CO2 EOR can provide positive impacts – 2 MMbpd of domestic oil production for 50 years - but it is not free. "Next Generation" CO2-EOR designs require capital outlays two times higher than current best practices.


CO2 STORAGE AND UTILIZATION NEAR MINGO COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA

Date: 09/2013

            Contact: DiPietro, Phil

Six oil fields within 100 miles of the planned coal-to-liquids facility in Mingo County were found to be prospective for miscible CO2-EOR. Four of the oil fields fall along a straight line and could, in concept, be developed sequentially along a single CO2 pipeline. The total demand for purchased CO2 from these four fields is estimated to be 47 million metric tons (890 Bcf) over 20 years. Four saline formations within Mingo County could accommodate 50 million metric tons of CO2 (accounts for uncertainty and a &"buffer zone”). The combined storage capacity – EOR within 100 miles of Mingo County and saline within Mingo County – can accommodate 3 million metric tons per year of vented CO2 for over 30 years Conclusion: there is enough potential for CO2 utilization and storage that a next level of study is a reasonable course.


Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective Factsheet

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis provides insight into key criteria for the feasibility of seven types of energy technologies. The seven types of technologies include electricity from natural gas, co-firing of coal and biomass, nuclear fuel, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar thermal resources. The key criteria for evaluating these technologies are defined.


Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant Rev. 2

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Timothy Skone

Life Cycle Analysis of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plant. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Power Plant Presentation

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Timothy Skone

Life Cycle Analysis of a Natural Gas Combined Cycle plant. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Power Plant Final

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Timothy Skone

Life Cycle Analysis of a Natural Gas Combined Cycle plant. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Current and Future Technologies for Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Power Plants

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Walter Shelton

The purpose of this study is to present the cost and performance of natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants using state-of-the-art (SOA) and advanced gas turbines, both non-capture configurations and with post combustion carbon capture based on an advanced solvent process. The NGCC cases included in this study consist of four gas turbine designs: F-frame (GE 7FA.05), H-frame (based on Siemens H), advanced J-frame (based on MHI J), and a conceptual advanced future design (designated as X-frame). Each turbine is modeled in three process configurations: without CO2 capture, with CO2 capture, and with CO2 capture and exhaust gas recycle (EGR).


Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis provides insight into key criteria for the feasibility of seven types of energy technologies. The seven types of technologies include electricity from natural gas, co-firing of coal and biomass, nuclear fuel, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar thermal resources. The key criteria for evaluating these technologies are defined.


Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective Report

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis provides insight into key criteria for the feasibility of seven types of energy technologies. The seven types of technologies include electricity from natural gas, co-firing of coal and biomass, nuclear fuel, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar thermal resources. The key criteria for evaluating these technologies are defined.


Quality Guideline for Energy System Studies: Carbon Dioxide Transport and Storage Costs in NETL Studies

Date: 03/2013

            Contact: Tim Grant

The purpose of this guideline is to estimate the cost of CO2 transport and storage (T&S) in a deep saline aquifer for the plant locations used in the energy system studies sponsored by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL).


A Forecast of Crude Oil Production from Carbon Dioxide Enhanced Oil Recovery in the United States through 2018

Date: 03/2013

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

CO2 supply for enhanced oil recovery operations in the United States is expected to increase 64% between 2012 and 2018, from 3.3 BCFd to 5.4 BCFd. The CO2 utilization rate (URNet the amount of CO2 supplied per incremental barrel of crude oil produced) can be used to estimate crude oil production based on CO2 supply rate. Based on compiled historical data we estimate the following regional CO2 Utilization rates: Permian basin, 8,500 scf/bbl, Rocky mountain, 8,000 scf/bbl, Gulf Coast, 25,000 scf/bbl. Applying these rates to the regional forecast for CO2 supply we forecast production from CO2 EOR in the United States in 2018 will be 500,000 bpd.


Evaluating the Impact of R&D and Learning-by-Doing on Fossil Energy Technology Cost Reductions: There Can be No Learning if There is No Doing

Date: 02/2013

            Contact: Katrina Krulla

Historical data has shown that as new technologies penetrate the market, costs are often reduced with each doubling in capacity because employees learn-by-doing. Learning curves are used by many models to forecast future capital costs for energy technologies including carbon capture. Caution should be taken when using learning curves to predict future capital costs because of the wide variation in learning rates and inability to separate the impacts of R&D. It is important to note that while learning-by-doing can bring costs down once a technology deploys, R&D is still necessary for the technology to become cost competitive.


Fossil Energy RD&D: Reducing the Cost of CCUS for Coal Power Plants

Date: 02/2013

            Contact: John G. Wimer

DOE’s Office of Fossil Energy, NETL implements research, development and demonstration (RD&D) programs that are moving aggressively to address the challenge of reducing greenhouse gas emissions as a climate change mitigation strategy. In partnership with both the Nation’s research universities and the private sector, RD&D efforts are focused on maximizing system efficiency and performance, while minimizing the costs of new Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) technologies. Improving the efficiency of power generation systems reduces emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as other criteria pollutants while using less water and extending the life of our domestic energy resource base.


North American CO2 Supply and Developments

Date: 01/2013

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

In 2013 carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2 EOR) operations in North America purchased 3.4 billion standard cubic feet of CO2 and produced 318,000 barrels per day of crude oil.  The average CO2 utilization rate was 9,200 scf/bbl in the Permian Basin, 8,800 scf/bbl in the Rocky Mountain region and 26,000 scf/bbl in the Gulf Coast region.  Based on expected regional growth in CO2 supply and expected trends in average CO2 utilization rates, crude oil production from CO2 EOR in North America is forecast to be 590,000 bpd in 2018.


Updated Costs (June 2011 Basis) for Selected Bituminous Baseline Cases

Date: 10/2012

            Contact: James Black

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity (Nov 2010) establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants fueled with bituminous coal, pulverized coal (PC) plants fueled with bituminous coal, and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The cost basis for that report was June 2007. This present report updates the cost of selected cases from that report to June 2011 dollars. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.


FE/NETL CTS-Saline Cost Model

Date: 10/2012

            Contact: Tim Grant

This PDF presentation illustrates the basic framework of the FE/NETL CTS-Saline Cost Model. A test matrix was developed to test the model under different storage project scenarios. The results of this test matrix are presented. Also, an illustrative example is provided of how the cost model can be used to estimate the cost-reducing potential of NETL's R&D work in carbon storage.


LCA XII Presentation: Exploring Economics and Environmental Performance: Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT)

Date: 10/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This presentation poster discusses the Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT). The Power LCAT is a flexible model and associated tool which calculates electricity production costs and tracks life cycle environmental performance for a range of power generation technologies.


NETL CO2 Injection and Storage Cost Model

Date: 09/2012

            Contact: Tim Grant

The basic framework for this model provides costs for compliance with various sections of EPA’s Class VI regulation and Subpart RR of the GHG Reporting Program. Cost analysis at two levels is provided by this model: site specific where the modeler can enter their own reservoir and cost data and regional in the form of cost supply curves. This model includes costs from initial regional geologic evaluation through site characterization, permitting, injection/MVA operations, post-injection site care to final site closure and transfer to long-term stewardship. A geologic and cost database was developed to support this model.


NETL Upstream Dashboard Tool

Date: 08/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

The goal of the Upstream Tool is to allow the user to customize key parameters specific to their Life Cycle case study or desired scenario, and generate customized Upstream Emissions results quickly and simply.


Techno-Economic Analysis of CO2 Capture-Ready Coal-Fired Power Plants

Date: 08/2012

            Contact: Eric Grol

This analysis evaluates CO2 capture-ready supercritical pulverized coal units. Cost and performance results are presented for capture-ready coal units that achieve a 30-year average emission rate of 1,000 Lb CO2/MWh. The analysis also includes a detailed discussion of the specific elements that comprise a capture-ready unit, as well as different design strategies to minimize costs. The benefits of R&D advances such as 2nd generation CO2 capture, and additional revenue from CO2 sales for enhanced oil recovery, are also presented, and are compared to other baseload generation options, such as natural gas combined cycle and nuclear.


Environmental Retrofit Tracking

Date: 07/2012

            Contact: Eric Grol

This presentation tracks environmental retrofits to the existing coal-fired power fleet, through various stages of project development. Many of the environmental compliance strategies that are expected to be implemented are analyzed with respect to recent regulatory initiatives, that may impact the existing coal-fired asset base. To view this document, when you open the file, click "Read Only."


Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT)

Date: 06/2012

            Contact: Justin Adder

The Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) is a high-level dynamic model that calculates production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind (with and without backup power). All of the fossil fuel technologies also include the option of carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. Power LCAT is targeted at helping policy makers, students, and interested stakeholders understand the economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with various electricity production options.


NEMS-CCUS: A Model and Framework for Comprehensive Assessment of CCUS and Infrastructure

Date: 06/2012

            Contact: Charles Zelek

This paper presents a recent application of the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded NEMS-CCUS (National Energy Modeling System - CO2 Capture, Utilization, and Storage) Model which enables the simulation of CO2 pipelines and pipeline networks across the forty-eight contiguous states. The model was used to assess the role of CO2 capture, utilization and storage in both carbon tax and clean energy standard (CES) cases. The paper was presented at the Carbon Management Technology Conference held in Orlando, Florida, USA, February 7–9, 2012.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Natural Gas Technology Assessment (Brief)

Date: 06/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This study discusses the role of natural gas power in meeting the energy needs of the United States (U.S.). This includes the identification of key issues related to natural gas and, where applicable, analyses of environmental and cost aspects of natural gas power.


A Benefits Analysis of the Existing Plants Emissions and Capture (EPEC) Program

Date: 06/2012

            Contact: Charles Zelek

This paper presents an analysis of the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants, Emissions, and Capture (EPEC) program. The overall goal of NETL’s EPEC program is to develop carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technologies that limit the increase in the cost of electricity generation to 35 percent of that generated by an equivalent greenfield plant without CCUS. The analysis was made using NETL’s Carbon Transport and Storage (CTS) model integrated into the Energy Information Administration (EIA) National Energy Modeling Software (NEMS).


Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) Technical Guide

Date: 05/2012

            Contact: Justin Adder

Power LCAT is a high-level dynamic model that calculates production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies. This report summarizes key assumptions and results for version 2.0 of Power LCAT. This report has three goals: to explain the basic methodology used to calculate production costs and to estimate environmental performance; to provide a general overview of the model operation and initial results; and to demonstrate the wide range of options for conducting sensitivity analysis.


Production of Zero Sulfur Diesel Fuel from Domestic Coal: Configurational Options to Reduce Environmental Impact

Date: 05/2012

            Contact: Thomas J. Tarka

The conversion of domestic resources such as coal and biomass into diesel fuel is a near-term technology pathway to address the energy security, economic sustainability, and climate change concerns which currently face our nation. This study evaluates the economic viability and environmental impact of producing diesel fuel via Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. Two facility design approaches – focused on fuels production and the co-production of fuels and electricity, respectively – were evaluated for the conversion of domestic resources such as coal or a mixture of coal and biomass.


A Note on Sources of CO2 Supply for Enhanced Oil Recovery Operations

Date: 04/2012

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This paper presents compiled information on sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations in the United States. CO2 supply in 2010 was 58 MtCO2. Production from natural sources accounted for 85% of the 2010 CO2 supply. Natural gas processing accounted for 13% of 2010 supply. The forecast rate of CO2 supply in 2015 is 93 MtCO2/yr, a 60% increase over the 2010 level. Hydrocarbon conversion facilities with CO2 capture account for 36% of the projected growth between 2010 and 2015. NOTE: By clicking the link below, you will be directed to a non-government website.


Current and Future Technologies for Power Generation with Post-Combustion Carbon Capture

Date: 04/2012

            Contact: Robert Stevens

The objective of this study is to support DOE’s Carbon Capture and Advanced Combustion R&D Programs by completing an "R&D Pathway” study for PC power plants that employ post-combustion carbon capture. The pathway begins with representation of today's technology and extends to include emerging carbon capture, advanced steam conditions, and advanced CO2 compression with corresponding performance/cost estimates to illustrate routes to achieving the DOE goal of ≤ 35% increase in cost of electricity relative to a PC plant without CO2 capture.


QGESS: Process Modeling Design Parameters

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

The purpose of this section of the Quality Guidelines is to document the assumptions most commonly used in systems analysis studies and the basis for those assumptions. The large number of assumptions required for a thorough systems analysis make it impractical to document the entire set in each report. This document will serve as a comprehensive reference for these assumptions as well as their justification.


Research and Development Goals for CO2 Capture Technology

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

This document outlines the carbon capture goals set forth by DOE/NETL and provides a detailed breakdown and justification of their derivation.


QGESS: CO2 Impurity Design Parameters

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

This section of the Quality Guidelines provides recommended impurity limits for CO2 stream components for use in conceptual studies of CO2 carbon capture, utilization, and storage systems. These limits were developed from information consolidated from numerous studies and are presented by component. Impurity levels are provided for limitations of carbon steel pipelines, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), saline reservoir sequestration, and cosequestration of CO2 and H2S in saline reservoirs.


QGESS: Specifications for Selected Feedstocks

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

This document provides recommended specifications for various feedstocks that are commonly found in NETL-sponsored energy system studies. Adhering to these specifications should enhance the consistency of such studies. NETL recommends these guidelines be followed in the absence of any compelling market, project, or site-specific requirements in order to facilitate comparison of studies evaluating coal-based technologies.


QGESS: Technology Learning Curve (FOAK to NOAK)

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

This report summarizes costing methodologies employed by NETL for estimating future costs of mature commercial Nth-of-a-kind (NOAK) power plants from initial first-of-a-kind (FOAK) estimates for use in costing models and reports. It defines the specific steps and factors which can be used in such estimation calculations. The methodology within is based on knowledge of major plant component costs for various technologies.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Advanced Jet Propulsion Fuels: Fischer-Tropsch Based SPK-1 Case Study - Model

Date: 12/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

The purpose of this report is to provide a framework and guidance for estimating the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for transportation fuels, specifically aviation fuels derived from coal and biomass. This report is a detailed case study of ten coal and biomass to SPK-1 aviation fuel scenarios. The case study follows the framework and guidance document developed by the Interagency Work Group for Alternative Fuels (IAWG-AF) published in 2010. The report is a product of the workgroup members, was sponsored by the U.S. Air Force and the project was led by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The results of this case study are a detailed report and model documenting the methodology, data, and conclusions. A summary presentation is also included with the report and model.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Advanced Jet Propulsion Fuels: Fischer-Tropsch Based SPK-1 Case Study - Presentation

Date: 12/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

The purpose of this report is to provide a framework and guidance for estimating the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for transportation fuels, specifically aviation fuels derived from coal and biomass. This report is a detailed case study of ten coal and biomass to SPK-1 aviation fuel scenarios. The case study follows the framework and guidance document developed by the Interagency Work Group for Alternative Fuels (IAWG-AF) published in 2010. The report is a product of the workgroup members, was sponsored by the U.S. Air Force and the project was led by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The results of this case study are a detailed report and model documenting the methodology, data, and conclusions. A summary presentation is also included with the report and model.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Advanced Jet Propulsion Fuels: Fischer-Tropsch Based SPK-1 Case Study - Report

Date: 12/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

The purpose of this report is to provide a framework and guidance for estimating the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for transportation fuels, specifically aviation fuels derived from coal and biomass. This report is a detailed case study of ten coal and biomass to SPK-1 aviation fuel scenarios. The case study follows the framework and guidance document developed by the Interagency Work Group for Alternative Fuels (IAWG-AF) published in 2010. The report is a product of the workgroup members, was sponsored by the U.S. Air Force and the project was led by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The results of this case study are a detailed report and model documenting the methodology, data, and conclusions. A summary presentation is also included with the report and model.


Recommended Project Finance Structures for the Economic Analysis of Fossil-Based Energy Projects - 2011

Date: 10/2011

            Contact: Wm. Morgan Summers

In this update to the 2008 report, the financial parameters to be used in economic analysis studies are updated and the issue of technology risk premium is revisited. Profiles for distributing Total Overnight Costs over various Capital Expenditure Periods (e.g. 3 and 5 years) and project financing costs that are representative of actual energy projects are also re-evaluated.


Life Cycle Analysis: Ethanol from Biomass - Presentation

Date: 09/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

Life Cycle Analysis of an Ethanol Plant utilizing Biomass. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs.


Life Cycle Analysis: Ethanol from Biomass - Appendix

Date: 09/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

Appendix of Life Cycle Analysis of an Ethanol Plant utilizing Biomass. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs.


Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion as a Near-Term CO2 Mitigation Strategy

Date: 09/2011

            Contact: Eric Grol

Circulating fluidized bed combustion systems have the potential to meet strict air quality guidelines currently being proposed (SO2, NOx, mercury, particulate). In addition, their fuel-flexibility can also allow for co-firing carbon neutral opportunity fuels, such as biomass, therefore reducing the CO2 footprint in the near-term. Building these plants with attention to the design considerations that will be needed to accommodate eventual CO2 capture (capture-ready) can also help future integration of full-scale capture.


Eliminating the Derate of Carbon Capture Retrofits

Date: 09/2011

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

Retrofitting existing PC plants with amine-based CO2 capture technology is thermally- and power-intensive. This study examines the benefit of installing a natural gas simple cycle to provide the auxiliaries required to operate the amine system such that the original power demand can still be met.


Cost and Performance of PC and IGCC Plants for a Range of Carbon Dioxide Capture

Date: 08/2011

            Contact: Kristen J. Gerdes

This study establishes the cost and performance for a range of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture levels for new supercritical pulverized coal and integrated gasification combined cycle power plants. Cost of avoiding CO2 emissions is calculated and utilized to find the optimum level of CO2 capture for each plant type.


Life Cycle Analysis: Ethanol from Biomass

Date: 08/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

Life Cycle Analysis of an Ethanol Plant utilizing Biomass. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 2: Coal to Synthetic Natural Gas and Ammonia

Date: 07/2011

            Contact: James Black

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants, Volume 2: Coal to Synthetic Natural Gas and Ammonia establishes performance and cost data for coal fueled plants producing synthetic natural gas and ammonia. The plants are based on a dry-feed entrained-flow gasifier and include cases using bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite coals. All configurations were studied with and without carbon sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions for plants starting operation in 2012. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.


Improving Domestic Energy Security and Lowering CO2 Emissions with “Next Generation” CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR)

Date: 06/2011

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

NETL has revised its national resource assessment for carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2 EOR). Under a current technology scenario, 1,200 reservoirs in the lower 48 states are amenable to CO2 EOR. At an assumed crude oil market price of $85 per barrel, these reservoirs represent 24 billion barrels of economic reserves. Under a next generation scenario the economic supply from CO2 EOR increases to 60 billion barrels. The resource assessment unveils a strong dependence on CO2 capture technology, as the equivalent of 60 - 90 GW of coal-fired plants with 90% capture will be needed to supply EOR floods.


Analysis of Natural Gas Fuel Cell Plant Configurations

Date: 05/2011

            Contact: Walter Shelton

This report presents the results of a Pathway Study for natural gas fueled, fuel cell (NGFC) power systems with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). The results quantify the performance and cost benefits for a series of projected gains made through the development of advances in the component technologies or improvements in plant operation and maintenance. The design and cost bases for this pathway study closely follows the bases applied in the NETL, 2010, Bituminous Baseline report so that direct performance and cost comparisons can be made with the conventional fossil-fuel power plant results estimated in that report. Performance and cost projections for a baseline integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant, a baseline natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plant, and prior coal-based integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) pathways, are compared with the results for the NGFC pathways. The results represent the potential future benefits of NGFC technology development. They also provide DOE with a basis to select the most appropriate development path for NGFC, and to measure and prioritize the contribution of its R&D program to future power systems technology.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 3a: Low Rank Coal to Electricity: IGCC Cases

Date: 05/2011

            Contact: James Black

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants Study, Volume 3a: Low Rank Coal to Electricity: IGCC Cases establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions. The study serves as a benchmark to track the progress of DOE Advanced Power Systems R&D and as a baseline for analyzing fossil energy plant options. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.


Analysis of Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell Plant Configurations

Date: 05/2011

            Contact: Walter Shelton

This report presents the results of a Pathway Study for coal-based, integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) power systems with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). The results quantify the performance and cost benefits for a series of projected gains made through the development of advanced technologies or improvements in plant operation and maintenance. The results represent the potential future benefits of IGFC technology development. They also provide DOE with a basis to select the most appropriate development path for IGFC, and to measure and prioritize the contribution of its R&D program to future power systems technology. The IGFC plants in this study apply advanced, planar, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology with separate anode and cathode off-gas steams, and incorporate anode off-gas oxy-combustion for nearly complete carbon capture. The SOFC simulations utilize the expected operating conditions and performance capabilities of this solid oxide fuel cell technology, operating initially at atmospheric-pressure. The power plant cost and performance estimates reflect performance projections based on the current state of SOFC development, as well as projecting a pathway of SOFC technology development advances.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 3c: Natural Gas Combined Cycle at Elevation

Date: 03/2011

            Contact: James Black

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants Study, Volume 3b: Low Rank Coal to Electricity establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically pulverized coal (PC) and circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions. The study serves as a benchmark to track the progress of DOE Advanced Power Systems R&D and as a baseline for analyzing fossil energy plant options. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 3b: Low Rank Coal to Electricity: Combustion Cases

Date: 03/2011

            Contact: James Black

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants Study, Volume 3b: Low Rank Coal to Electricity establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically pulverized coal (PC) and circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions. The study serves as a benchmark to track the progress of DOE Advanced Power Systems R&D and as a baseline for analyzing fossil energy plant options. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.


Life Cycle Analysis: Power Studies Compilation Report

Date: 01/2011

            Contact: Robert James

Presentation for life cycle analysis compilation of the power LCA reports. Develops an inventory of emissions results, and calculates life cycle costs for each plant with and without CCS.


Carbon Capture Approaches for Natural Gas Combined Cycle Systems

Date: 01/2011

            Contact: Walter Shelton

This study develops ASPEN PLUS simulation models and cost estimates for Natural Gas Combined Cycle plants with CO2 capture. Three approaches for carbon capture are examined: pre-combustion, post-combustion and oxy-combustion. In pre-combustion carbon capture, the carbon in the fuel is converted to CO2 and removed before the combustion process, whereas in post-combustion, the more dilute CO2 is separated from the flue gas at a lower pressure. Oxy-combustion technologies use nearly pure oxygen as the oxidant so that the flue gas consists primarily of CO2 and water vapor. Case results are compared with a reference plant based on an 7F frame combustion turbine.


A Comparative Assessment of CO2 Sequestration through Enhanced Oil Recovery and Saline Aquifer Sequestration

Date: 01/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

A comparative assessment of CO2 sequestration through enhanced oil recovery and saline aquifer sequestration.


Coal-Fired Power Plants in the United States: Examination of the Costs of Retrofitting with CO2 Capture Technology, Revision 3

Date: 01/2011

            Contact: Christopher Nichols

This report describes the development of a database and geographic information systems (GIS) analysis of a defined population of coal-fired power plants in the U.S. to model the cost and assist in the assessment of the feasibility of retrofitting these plants with CO2 capture technology. In addition, an assessment of the impacts on generation, CO2 emission, and fuel consumption should all units be brought up to the average efficiency of the top decile of efficient units by nameplate was made. This report covers data sources, methodology employed, modeling and results. An appendix containing a catalog of aerial imagery used for this analysis is available as a separate document. Click here to see Appendix 3.


Life Cycle Analysis: Existing Pulverized Coal (EXPC) Power Plant

Date: 12/2010

            Contact: Robert James

Life Cycle Analysis of an Existing PC plant with CCS Retrofit. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant

Date: 12/2010

            Contact: Robert James

Life Cycle Analysis of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plant. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Power Plant

Date: 12/2010

            Contact: Robert James

Life Cycle Analysis of an NGCC plant. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Supercritical Pulverized Coal (SCPC) Power Plant

Date: 12/2010

            Contact: Robert James

Life Cycle Analysis of a Supercritical PC plant with CCS Retrofit. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity

Date: 11/2010

            Contact: James Black

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants Study, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle, pulverized coal, and natural gas combined cycle plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions. The study serves as a benchmark to track the progress of DOE Advanced Power Systems R&D and as a baseline for analyzing fossil energy plant options. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.


CarBen Version 3

Date: 10/2010

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

The Carben model enables users to conduct wedge anlayses of scenarios for mitigating U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. The spreadsheet-based tool relies upon expert opinion for scenario formulation, it is not a cost optimization model.


Current and Future Technologies for Gasification-Based Power Generation, Volume 2: Carbon Capture, Revision 1

Date: 10/2010

            Contact: Kristin J. Gerdes

The impact of a portfolio of advanced technologies in DOE's Clean Coal R&D Program were evaluated in gasification-based power plant configurations with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) resulting in power plants that are significantly more efficient and affordable than today's fossil energy technologies. In the IGCC process, the study estimates that a 7 percentage point efficiency improvement over conventional gasification technology is possible. With fuel cell technology, process efficiency improvements of 24 percentage points are potentially achievable. Furthermore, successful R&D for the advanced technologies evaluated results in capital costs and cost of electricity that is more than 30% below that of conventional IGCC technology with CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Power Studies Compilation Report

Date: 10/2010

            Contact: Robert James

Life cycle analysis compilation of the power LCA reports. Develops an inventory of emissions results, and calculates life cycle costs for each plant with and without CCS.


Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet Future Thermoelectric Generation Requirements

Date: 09/2010

            Contact: Erik Shuster

Future freshwater withdrawal and consumption from domestic thermoelectric generation sources were estimated for five cases, using AEO 2010 regional projections for capacity additions and retirements. Results demonstrate that carbon capture technologies could increase the water demand of thermoelectric power plants and indicate that consumption is expected to increase in all cases.


Life Cycle Analysis: Power Studies Compilation Report Presentation

Date: 09/2010

            Contact: Robert James

Presentation for life cycle analysis compilation of the Power LCA Reports. Develops an inventory of emissions results, and calculates life cycle costs for each plant with and without CCS.


Operator's Manual: CarBen Version 3

Date: 09/2010

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

The CarBen model enables users to conduct wedge analyses of scenarios for mitigating U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. The operator's manual provide a walk-through of the input screens and descirbes the capabilities for results reporting.


An Assessment of Gate-to-Gate Environmental Life Cycle Performance of Water-Alternating-Gas CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery in the Permian Basin

Date: 09/2010

            Contact: Robert Dilmore

CO2-enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) stimulates oil production while storing a portion of the injected CO2. Life cycle assessment was performed for three CO2-EOR scenarios to estimate the "gate-to-gate" greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with water-alternating-gas injection in a typical Permian Basin reservoir. Current CO2-EOR "best practices" generate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of 71 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2E) per barrel of oil extracted - approximately three times greater than GHG emissions for the average barrel of domestic oil extracted in 2005.


Life Cycle Analysis of Coal and Natural Gas-Fired Power Plants

Date: 07/2010

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This presentation summarizes results of a full life cycle assessment on greenhouse gas emissions for five baseload power plant technologies, as conducted for the EPRI coal fleet meeting held on July 20, 2010. Driving factors, global warming potential, energy losses, electricity costs, methane content, air pollutants and upstream emissions are discussed, ranked and evaluated.


Improving the Efficiency of Coal-Fired Power Plants for Near Term Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions

Date: 04/2010

            Contact: Katrina Krulla

This NETL report sets forth a vision of improving the average efficiency of the existing coal fired power plant fleet from 32.5% to 36% based on (1) units achieving efficiency equal to the 90th percentile unit in each class, (2) retirements of low efficiency units, and (3) improvements within the best-in-class. Under a scenario where generation from coal is constant at the 2008 level, increasing the average efficiency from 32.5% to 36% reduces U.S. GHG by 175 MMmt/year or 2.5% of total U.S. GHG emissions in 2008.


Storing CO2 and Producing Domestic Crude Oil with Next Generation CO2-EOR Technology: An Update

Date: 04/2010

            Contact: Donald Remson

This study provides an update of the January, 2009 report, which examined and quantified the benefits of integrating CO2 storage with next generation enhanced oil recovery practices. The same analysis is repeated using updated data for the state of Alaska and the Offshore Gulf of Mexico. In this report, four next generation CO2 EOR technology options are identified and described, and the potential additional amounts of oil recovered and CO2 stored by using these technologies are quantified.


Advanced Coal Power Market Penetration under Carbon Taxation

Date: 03/2010

            Contact: Katrina Krulla

This presentation provides an NETL exercise of the NEMS AEO2009 ARRA version to model benefits of advanced coal R&D.


Interagency Workgroup on Life Cycle GHG Emissions of Alternative Aviation Fuels

Date: 02/2010

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This presentation covers efforts to examine life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of alternative aviation fuels, as led by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory with the support of a multi-disciplinary group of federal, industrial, academic institutions. The primary objective of the workgroup is to develop a set of standard guidance on how to evaluate the life cycle GHG footprint of various alternative jet fuel production pathways using a wide-range of feedstock sources. Application of the guidelines can be used by fuel suppliers, military, and commercial airlines to assess the environmental preferability of a specific fuel production pathway when compared to conventional jet fuel. Workgroup activity status and plans for testing on specific case studies are also discussed.


Coal-Fired Power Plants in the United States: Examination of the Costs of Retrofitting with CO2 Capture Technology and the Potential for Improvements in Efficiency, Appendix 3

Date: 12/2009

            Contact: Christopher Nichols

This appendix contains the catalog of all imagery used in the GIS analysis portion of the report.


Integration of H2 Separation Membranes with CO2 Capture and Compression

Date: 11/2009

            Contact: Eric Grol

A core mission of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Carbon Sequestration Program is to foster the development of commercially-ready technologies for CO2 capture and sequestration. R&D supported by the U.S. DOE is investigating alternatives to absorption for capturing CO2 that may achieve program goals. Membrane gas separation has a number of advantages, in that they are usually compact, have no moving parts, have low maintenance, and are highly reliable. In this assessment, alternative flowsheets incorporating membranes that may out-perform current technologies for CO2 capture were investigated. An initial screening study identified several novel integrations of membranes for IGCC applications.


The Potential of Advanced Technologies to Reduce IGCC Carbon Capture Costs

Date: 10/2009

            Contact: Kristin J. Gerdes

The impact of a portfolio of advanced technologies in DOE's Clean Coal R&D Program were evaluated in gasification-based power plant configurations with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) resulting in power plants that are significantly more efficient and affordable than today's fossil energy technologies. This was presented at the Oct 2009 Gasification Technologies Conference (GTC) and is a companion presentation to the final report, "Current and Future Technologies for Gasfication-Based Power Generation, Volume 2" (Nov 2009).


A Presentation on CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery given to the China National Petroleum Corporation, October 2009

Date: 10/2009

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This presentation discusses NETL's assessment of opportunities to use carbon dioxide to enhance oil recovery in the United States, as presented at the China National Petroleum Corporation workshop on CO2 EOR and Storage in Beijing, China on October 26, 2009. It discusses efforts to quantify the amount of crude oil amenable to CO2 EOR, estimates CO2 sequestration levels, and identifies current modeling efforts as well as outlines economic and environmental benefits. Basin-level data, analysis methods and recovery estimates are also presented.


Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool

Date: 10/2009

            Contact: John G. Wimer

The Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool illustrates key data from the Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity report. The tool provides an interactive summary of the full report and serves as an electronic desk reference for quickly obtaining plant cost and performance data and for comparing and contrasting several technologies. Performance, emissions, and cost data presented include: net and gross output, heat rate, efficiency, water use, SO2, NOx, CO2, PM, and Hg emissions, total plant cost and levelized cost of electricity. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.


Water Requirements for Fossil-Based Electricity Plants with and without Carbon Capture

Date: 09/2009

            Contact: Erik Shuster

This presentation was presented at the 2009 Ground Water Protection Council's Annual Forum in Salt Lake City, UT. It provides an overview of water requirements for fossil-based electricity plants with and without carbon capture with a focus on coal fueled plants. Several qualitative Sankey diagrams for water use are provided.


Evaluation of Alternate Water Gas Shift Configurations for IGCC Systems

Date: 09/2009

            Contact: Eric Grol

This report investigates the cost and performance effects of a range of carbon capture goals, by varying the amount of CO converted to CO2 in the water gas shift step of an IGCC plant.


Update of Regulatory Activity Impacting Coal-Fired Power Plants

Date: 09/2009

            Contact: Eric Grol

This presentation evaluates recent regulatory initiatives that could have an impact on new and existing coal-fired power plants. The relevant regulations are identified, along with possible compliance strategies.  To view this document, when you open the file, click "Read Only."


Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet Future Thermoelectric Generation Requirements: 2009 Update

Date: 09/2009

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

Future freshwater withdrawal and consumption from domestic thermoelectric generation sources were estimated for five cases, using AEO 2009 regional projections for capacity additions and retirements. Results demonstrate that carbon capture technologies could increase the water demand of thermoelectric power plants and indicate that consumption is expected to increase in all cases.


Systems Analysis of an Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell Combined Cycle

Date: 09/2009

            Contact: Eric Grol

This report presents three integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) combined cycle cases that include carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). An IGFC combined cycle naturally lends itself to CCS, and also has the benefit of high efficiency and minimal water footprint.


Storage of Captured Carbon Dioxide Beneath Federal Lands

Date: 05/2009

            Contact: Tim Grant

The analysis presented in this report was done to assess the storage potential beneath Federal lands and further the effort undertaken in the Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada by defining a resource potential beneath a specific category of land. Also considered in this analysis was the location of potential CO2 point sources that might utilize Federal lands for storage, pipeline Right-Of-Way (ROW), and wells located on or near Federal land. Relevant laws, regulations, and legislation at the Federal and State level are also summarized.


Assessment of Power Plants That Meet Proposed Greenhouse Gas Emission Performance Standards

Date: 05/2009

            Contact: Eric Grol

Technoeconomic assessment of western U.S. coal-fired power plants (greenfield IGCC and supercritical PC, and existing subcritical PC) each with three CO2 capture levels: 0%, 90%, and a level appropriate to meet California's standard of 1,100 lb CO2/MWh.


Framework and Guidance for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Footprints of Aviation Fuels

Date: 04/2009

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This report provides framework and guidance for estimating the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for transportation fuels, specifically aviation fuels. The focus on aviation fuels was driven by the patterns of fuel use by the federal government. Policies such as those outlined in Section 526 of EISA 2007 cause federal agencies to institute enforceable guidelines for procuring low carbon alternative fuels. Federal consumption of fuels is dominated by the Department of Defense and the Air Force consumes more fuel than any of the other military services or federal agencies (Defense Science Board 2008). Thus, aviation applications may become early adopters of low carbon transportation fuels. The U.S. Air Force convened a working group of individuals from government agencies, universities and companies actively engaged in assessing greenhouse gas emissions from transportation fuels, and requested that this group develop guidance on procedures for estimating greenhouse gas emissions in aviation applications, using currently available data and tools.


NEMS CO2 Market Model Development Documentation Report

Date: 04/2009

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This report details the development and results of a modified version of EIA's National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) model that directly represents potential CO2 transfer between alternative supply sources and regional EOR-CO2 production capability as represented by the NETL supply and demand curves. A new module was developed and added to the NEMS system to equilibrate CO2 supply and demand and establish regional CO2 transfer prices between CO2 sources and EOR/sequestration entities. The project methodology, NEMS' modifications, and specified model results are comprehensively detailed in this report. Appendices containing NEMS coding and result tables are provided in a separate document, click here to see the appendices.


NEMS CO2 Market Model Development Documentation Report Appendices

Date: 04/2009

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This document contains the Appendices for the report titled "NEMS CO2 Market Model Development Documentation Report" that details the development of a modified version of EIA's National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) model and directly represents potential CO2 transfer between alternative supply sources and regional EOR-CO2 production capability. These Appendices contain NEMS coding and result tables.


Database and Model of Coal-fired Power Plants in the United States for Examination of the Costs of Retrofitting with CO2 Capture Technology

Date: 04/2009

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

NETL developed a GIS database of the US coal-fired power plant fleet to analyze cost and space availability issues associated with retrofitting for carbon capture. A presentation titled Coal-fired Power Plants in the U.S.: Costs for Retrofit with CO2 Capture Technology is also included.


DOE NETL's Carbon Capture R&D Program for Existing Coal Fired Power Plants

Date: 02/2009

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

A review and assessment of the DOE research and development (R&D) program directed specifically at post- and oxy-combustion CO2 capture technologies that can be retrofit to existing coal-fired power plants, and designed into new plants. The strategic plan for this program includes the development of advanced CO2 capture and compression technologies for both existing and new coal-fired power plants that, when combined, can achieve 90 percent CO2 capture at less than a 35 percent increase in cost of electricity (COE). Such technologies could then be available for commercial use by 2020.


Electricity Use of Enhanced Oil Recovery with Carbon Dioxide

Date: 01/2009

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This report examines the electricity requirements of carbon-dioxide enhanced oil recovery technology and provides a range of estimates, expressed in kWh of electricity consumed per Bbl of incremental oil produced.


Spreadsheet Tool for Calculating the Material Flows in a PHEV-CO2EOR-CCS-CBTL System-Presentation

Date: 01/2009

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This presentation describes a spreadsheet tool that models two systems where plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are fueled by electricity from a coal-fired power plant with CO2 capture and storage (CCS) and either (1) gasoline refined from petroleum or (2) diesel fuel produced from a coal and/or biomass to liquids plant with CCS.


Spreadsheet Tool for Calculating the Material Flows in a PHEV-CO2EOR-CCS-CBTL System

Date: 01/2009

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This tool models two systems where plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are fueled by electricity from a coal-fired power plant with CO2 capture and storage (CCS) and either (1) gasoline refined from petroleum or (2) diesel fuel produced from a coal and/or biomass to liquids plant with CCS. Each scenario allows use of the captured CO2 for enhanced oil recovery. The model determines the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and compares this value to a conventional vehicle powered solely by petroleum-based fuels.


Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting of CO2 Stored in Deep Geologic Formations

Date: 01/2009

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This document was developed for regulatory organizations, project developers, and policymakers to increase awareness of existing and developing monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) techniques applied in geological sequestration sites for carbon dioxide. The contents discuss the principle goals of MVA and the effective techniques by which it is practiced. The report also provides case studies of domestic and international research sites.


2008 Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada

Date: 11/2008

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This document presents an overview of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies and comments on the government-level efforts in CCS including the development of the National Carbon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NATCARB). Several maps showing the number, location, and magnitude of identified CO2 stationary sources in the U.S. and portions of Canada demonstrate the extent of CO2 storage available. Finally, a review of field projects and findings are presented, describing commercial opportunities of storing CO2 from stationary sources.


Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet Future Thermoelectric Generation Requirements: 2008 Update

Date: 09/2008

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

Future freshwater withdrawal and consumption from domestic thermoelectric generation sources were estimated for five cases, using AEO 2008 regional projections for capacity additions and retirements. Results demonstrate that carbon capture technologies could increase the water demand of thermoelectric power plants and indicate that consumption is expected to increase in all cases.


Impact of Cost Escalation on Power Systems R and D Goals - Report

Date: 09/2008

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This report recommends updates to goals for three technology areas in the Clean Coal R&D Program: Advanced Power Systems (APS); Carbon Sequestration (CS); and Fuel Cells (FC) to account for cost escalation, and it contains a definition of the baseline used to set these goals.


Methodology for Development of Geologic Storage Estimates for Carbon Dioxide

Date: 09/2008

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This document describes the methodologies used to produce the geologic resource estimates for carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in the 2008 Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada (Atlas II). The methodologies described in this document were designed to integrate results of data compiled by the seven RCSPs for three types of geologic formations: saline formations, unmineable coal seams, and oil and gas reservoirs.


Impact of Cost Escalation on Power System R and D Goals - Presentation

Date: 09/2008

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This companion presentation summarizes the report which recommends updates to goals for three technology areas in the Clean Coal R&D Program: Advanced Power Systems (APS); Carbon Sequestration (CS); and Fuel Cells (FC) to account for cost escalation, and it contains a definition of the baseline used to set these goals.


Advances in CO2 Capture Technology - The U.S. Department of Energy's Carbon Sequestration Program

Date: 04/2008

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This paper discusses the current status of the development of CO2 capture technology. Among the technologies discussed are contemporary processes including gas phase separation, absorption into a liquid, and adsorption on a solid as well as hybrid processes. The paper also reviews several innovative concepts, such as metal organic frameworks, ionic liquids, and enzyme-based systems.


CO2 Capture-Ready Coal Power Plants

Date: 04/2008

            Contact: John G. Wimer

This report examines the question of whether it is more cost effective to design a new plant in anticipation of future restrictions on carbon emissions so that the plant is CO2 capture-ready or to proceed with no anticipation of a future retrofit. Specifically, the timing of the optimal investment decision in assessed by applying a simplified discounted cash flow tool (DCF) to determine the sensitivity of the relationship between the costs of electricity of each option to the time value of money. See Carbon Storage Program Overview.


Lake Nyos and Mammoth Mountain: What do they tell us about the Security of Engineered Storage of CO2 Underground?

Date: 04/2008

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

A factsheet that reviews two natural cases of geologic carbon dioxide accumulation in California. Lake Nyos and Mammoth Mountain are sites at which carbon dioxide is released as geologic activity disturbs the region. These sites are natural models to demonstrate the concerns with stability and environmental impacts of large-scale CO2 release from future engineered carbon geosequestration locations.


An Integrated Modeling Framework for Carbon Management Technologies

Date: 04/2008

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

A factsheet on the need for modeling and assessment tools that evaluate the cost and effectiveness of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) methods. A tool modeling tool was developed at Carnegie Mellon University: The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM). This model compares the economic costs of projects relevant to characteristics of plants implementing them, and determines the optimal CCS application.


Storing CO2 with Enhanced Oil Recovery

Date: 02/2008

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This study examines and quantifies the benefits of integrating CO2 storage with enhanced oil recovery (EOR). It also estimates the size of the U.S. CO2 market available from enhanced oil recovery and how this market could support early market entry of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS technology).


Deployment of Advanced Coal Power in the U.S. under a Range of Carbon Tax Scenarios

Date: 01/2008

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) was exercised to forecast market penetration for advanced coal power with CO2 capture under a range of CO2 emission tax scenarios, considering market-based incentives for low carbon emission power and improved technology performance consistent with the DOE/FE research portfolio.


Exploring NEMS for Integrated Assessments of Retrofitting or Repowering the Fleet of Coal Fired Plants. Volume II: Adding PC Repowering to NEMS, Integrated Assessments

Date: 01/2008

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This study envisions repowering by means of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology configured for capture and sequestration (CCS). Cost and performance factors were added to the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) for a brownfield setting, wherein the site's ancillary equipment and infrastructure is used, but not its existing steam turbine.


Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants

Date: 11/2007

            Contact: John G. Wimer

This study evaluates the technical and economic impacts of removing CO2 from a typical existing US coal-fired electric power plant using an advanced amine-based post-combustion CO2 capture system.  The study investigates various levels of CO2 capture (30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%).  The primary impacts are quantified in terms of plant electrical output reduction, thermal efficiency reduction, CO2 emissions reduction, retrofit investment costs, and the incremental cost of generating electricity resulting from the addition of the CO2 capture systems to the selected study unit.


Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Power Plants Presentation

Date: 11/2007

            Contact: John G. Wimer

This presentation discusses the technical report of the same title. The underlying study evaluates the technical and economic impacts of removing CO2 from a typical US coal-fired electric power plan using an advanced amine-based post-combustion CO2 capture system.


The United States Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Program Validation Phase

Date: 10/2007

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This paper reviews the Validation Phase (Phase II) of the Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships initiative. Successful achievements of the Characterization Phase are first presented. The seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSP) will then perform field tests that will validate carbon sequestration technologies that are best suited to their respective regions of the country during the Validation Phase.


Economic Impacts of U.S. Liquid Fuel Mitigation Options

Date: 07/2006

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This study assesses the economic implications of simultaneous crashes in the supply and demand sides of the economy; emulating a rapid reduction of U.S. dependence on imported oil. The report identifies the infrastructure needed to conduct this undertaking, and considers four options to mitigate dependence on imported oil: Vehicle fuel efficiency (VFE), Coal liquefaction (coal-to-liquids or CTL), Oil shale, and Enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The results of this study summarize what can be accomplished under optimal circumstances.


International Carbon Capture and Storage Projects Overcoming Legal Barriers

Date: 07/2006

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This document examines regulatory developments of major CCS projects to determine progress in regulation. Five case studies of CCS projects are examined, including enhanced resource recovery and direct storage options at various development stages. The focus of this report is the legal and regulatory context for international projects, although field projects in the U.S. are also addressed.


Geosequestration Field Experiments

Date: 05/2005

            Contact: John G. Wimer

A factsheet concerning existing carbon geosequestration projects and demonstrations in the U.S. These programs include: Mountaineer Project-American Electric Power (AEP), West Pearl Queen-Strata Production, Frio-University of Texas Bureau of Economic Geology, Central Appalachian Basin-Consol Energy, Tiffany-Burlington Resources, and Weyburn-Alta Energy.


The Top Ten Most-Asked Questions and How to Answer Them

Date: 05/2005

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This presentation reviews the top questions relevant to carbon dioxide emissions, enhanced oil recovery, and carbon capture and sequestration. The purpose of this presentation is to open discussion on DOE strategies to reducing greenhouse gas emissions through a portfolio of programs and alternatives.


Life Cycle Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Hydrogen Fuel Production in the USA from LNG and Coal

Date: 05/2005

            Contact: Eric Grol

This presentation reviews a study that estimates life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for producing hydrogen from natural gas and coal. GHG emissions from all process steps are considered and comparisons were made between applications with and without carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). The study also discusses methane emissions and provides scenario analysis of coal-mine methane mitigation options.


Risk Assessment for Long-term Storage of CO2 in Geologic Formations

Date: 03/2005

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

A factsheet presenting the US DOE Office of Fossil Energy's long-term goals for the safe and environmentally-sound operation of geologic CO2 storage facilities. This includes the DOE's risk assessment R&D component called 'Monitoring, Mitigation, and Verification (MM&V)". The document summarizes trapping and mitigation techniques supported in the safe management goals.


A Primer on Perceptions of Risk, Risk Communication and Building Trust

Date: 02/2005

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This paper provides outreach and education information for carbon sequestration activities. The paper addresses communication methods for discussing potential risks and benefits of geologic carbon sequestration to the public. The document also presents effective diagnostic tools to help practitioners identify problems, communicate effectively, and engage the public.


Polygeneration of SNG, Hydrogen, Power, and Carbon Dioxide from Texas Lignite

Date: 12/2004

            Contact: John G. Wimer

The intent of this study is to investigate the feasibility of siting a lignite conversion plant in Texas at the mine mouth of the Wilcox lignite deposit. The concept is to coproduce at least three products: electric power, hydrogen or substitute natural gas (SNG), and carbon dioxide. The electric power would be sold to the grid, the hydrogen would be sent by pipeline to the Gulf Coast petroleum refineries, the SNG would be sold as a natural gas supplement, and the carbon dioxide would be pipelined to the West Texas oil fields for enhanced oil recovery.


Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

Date: 05/2004

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This presentation provides an overview of the Carbon Sequestration Programs and related research supported by DOE. This review includes discussion on the mechanisms behind CCS methodologies. The presentation also provides background on the structure of US fuel consumption and energy supplies, as these sources contribute to emissions.


Sequestration in the Media: Changes in Public Perception

Date: 05/2004

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

The purpose of this presentation is to review carbon sequestration literature and historical record of the topic's discussion in the media. Using the reference concentrations and topic discussions as data points, this analysis quantifies trends, themes, and areas of emphasis within the carbon sequestration research community.


NETL Carbon Sequestration Program: US Perspective on CO2 Capture and Separation

Date: 04/2004

            Contact: John G. Wimer

This presentation outlines the NETL Carbon Sequestration Program and the pre- and post-combustion technologies under which CO2 capture is proposed. The presentation also discusses the modeling and assessment tools used to evaluate the performance of each technology. The final section reviews ongoing R&D projects and highlights their progress.


Stabilizing Atmospheric Concentrations of CO2: Role of Carbon Sequestration

Date: 02/2004

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

The paper analyzes a scenario for reducing U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that is consistent, in the near term, with the President's Global Climate Change Initiative (GCCI) and, in the longer term, atmospheric stabilization at 550 ppm. The purpose for formulating and evaluating such a stabilization scenario is to define the role and expectations for performance of carbon sequestration technologies in a future, speculative carbon-constrained world.